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Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).
J Phycol. 2017 04; 53(2):283-297.JP

Abstract

Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) that bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in CFP endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to CFP cases occurring in this region. In this study, we characterized five strains of Gambierdiscus collected from Heron Island, Australia, a region in which ciguatera is endemic. Clonal cultures were assessed using (i) light microscopy; (ii) scanning electron microscopy; (iii) DNA sequencing based on the nuclear encoded ribosomal 18S and D8-D10 28S regions; (iv) toxicity via mouse bioassay; and (v) toxin profile as determined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Both the morphological and phylogenetic data indicated that these strains represent a new species of Gambierdiscus, G. lapillus sp. nov. (plate formula Po, 3', 0a, 7″, 6c, 7-8s, 5‴, 0p, 2″″ and distinctive by size and hatchet-shaped 2' plate). Culture extracts were found to be toxic using the mouse bioassay. Using chemical analysis, it was determined that they did not contain maitotoxin (MTX1) or known algal-derived ciguatoxin analogs (CTX3B, 3C, CTX4A, 4B), but that they contained putative MTX3, and likely other unknown compounds.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales, 2007, Australia.Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales, 2007, Australia.Cawthron Institute, The Wood, Nelson, 7010, New Zealand.Senckenberg Research Institute, German Centre for Marine Biodiversity Research, 26382, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales, 2007, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27885668

Citation

Kretzschmar, Anna Liza, et al. "Characterization of Gambierdiscus Lapillus Sp. Nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a New Toxic Dinoflagellate From the Great Barrier Reef (Australia)." Journal of Phycology, vol. 53, no. 2, 2017, pp. 283-297.
Kretzschmar AL, Verma A, Harwood T, et al. Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia). J Phycol. 2017;53(2):283-297.
Kretzschmar, A. L., Verma, A., Harwood, T., Hoppenrath, M., & Murray, S. (2017). Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Journal of Phycology, 53(2), 283-297. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12496
Kretzschmar AL, et al. Characterization of Gambierdiscus Lapillus Sp. Nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a New Toxic Dinoflagellate From the Great Barrier Reef (Australia). J Phycol. 2017;53(2):283-297. PubMed PMID: 27885668.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia). AU - Kretzschmar,Anna Liza, AU - Verma,Arjun, AU - Harwood,Tim, AU - Hoppenrath,Mona, AU - Murray,Shauna, Y1 - 2017/01/30/ PY - 2016/04/20/received PY - 2016/09/30/accepted PY - 2016/11/26/pubmed PY - 2017/9/7/medline PY - 2016/11/26/entrez KW - Gambierdiscus lapillus KW - Ciguatera fish poisoning KW - Ciguatoxin KW - Epiphytic dinoflagellate KW - Great Barrier Reef KW - Maitotoxin KW - Phylogenetics SP - 283 EP - 297 JF - Journal of phycology JO - J Phycol VL - 53 IS - 2 N2 - Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) that bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in CFP endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to CFP cases occurring in this region. In this study, we characterized five strains of Gambierdiscus collected from Heron Island, Australia, a region in which ciguatera is endemic. Clonal cultures were assessed using (i) light microscopy; (ii) scanning electron microscopy; (iii) DNA sequencing based on the nuclear encoded ribosomal 18S and D8-D10 28S regions; (iv) toxicity via mouse bioassay; and (v) toxin profile as determined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Both the morphological and phylogenetic data indicated that these strains represent a new species of Gambierdiscus, G. lapillus sp. nov. (plate formula Po, 3', 0a, 7″, 6c, 7-8s, 5‴, 0p, 2″″ and distinctive by size and hatchet-shaped 2' plate). Culture extracts were found to be toxic using the mouse bioassay. Using chemical analysis, it was determined that they did not contain maitotoxin (MTX1) or known algal-derived ciguatoxin analogs (CTX3B, 3C, CTX4A, 4B), but that they contained putative MTX3, and likely other unknown compounds. SN - 1529-8817 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27885668/Characterization_of_Gambierdiscus_lapillus_sp__nov___Gonyaulacales_Dinophyceae_:_a_new_toxic_dinoflagellate_from_the_Great_Barrier_Reef__Australia__ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12496 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -