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Supplementation with progestogens in the first trimester of pregnancy to prevent miscarriage in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.
Fertil Steril. 2017 02; 107(2):430-438.e3.FS

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate whether treatment with progestogens in the first trimester of pregnancy would decrease the incidence of miscarriage in women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

DESIGN

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

SETTING

Not applicable.

PATIENT(S)

Women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

INTERVENTION(S)

Randomized, controlled trials were identified by searching electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled trials comparing supplementation with progestogens (i.e., intervention group) in the first trimester of pregnancy with control (either placebo or no treatment) in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage. All types of progestogens, including natural P and synthetic progestins, were analyzed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S)

The primary outcome was the incidence of miscarriage. The summary measures were reported as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

RESULT(S)

Ten trials including 1,586 women with recurrent miscarriage were analyzed. Eight studies used placebo as control and were double-blind. Regarding the intervention, two RCTs used natural P, whereas the other eight studies used progestins: medroxyprogesterone, cyclopentylenol ether of progesterone, dydrogesterone, or 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Pooled data from the 10 trials showed that women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage who were randomized to the progestogens group in the first trimester and before 16 weeks had a lower risk of recurrent miscarriage (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97) and higher live birth rate (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.15) compared with those who did not. No statistically significant differences were found in the other secondary outcomes, including preterm birth (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71-1.66), neonatal mortality (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.44-7.34), and fetal genital abnormalities (RR 1.68, 95% CI 0.22-12.62).

CONCLUSION(S)

Our findings provide evidence that supplementation with progestogens may reduce the incidence of recurrent miscarriages and seem to be safe for the fetuses. Synthetic progestogens, including weekly IM 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, but not natural P, were associated with a lower risk of recurrent miscarriage. Given the limitations of the studies included in our meta-analysis, it is difficult to recommend route and dose of progestogen therapy. Further head-to-head trials of P types, dosing, and route of administration are required.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry, School of Medicine, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Reproductive Medicine Associates of New Jersey, Morristown, New Jersey.Reproductive Medicine Associates of New Jersey, Morristown, New Jersey.Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address: vincenzo.berghella@jefferson.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27887710

Citation

Saccone, Gabriele, et al. "Supplementation With Progestogens in the First Trimester of Pregnancy to Prevent Miscarriage in Women With Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials." Fertility and Sterility, vol. 107, no. 2, 2017, pp. 430-438.e3.
Saccone G, Schoen C, Franasiak JM, et al. Supplementation with progestogens in the first trimester of pregnancy to prevent miscarriage in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(2):430-438.e3.
Saccone, G., Schoen, C., Franasiak, J. M., Scott, R. T., & Berghella, V. (2017). Supplementation with progestogens in the first trimester of pregnancy to prevent miscarriage in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Fertility and Sterility, 107(2), 430-e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.10.031
Saccone G, et al. Supplementation With Progestogens in the First Trimester of Pregnancy to Prevent Miscarriage in Women With Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(2):430-438.e3. PubMed PMID: 27887710.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Supplementation with progestogens in the first trimester of pregnancy to prevent miscarriage in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. AU - Saccone,Gabriele, AU - Schoen,Corina, AU - Franasiak,Jason M, AU - Scott,Richard T,Jr AU - Berghella,Vincenzo, Y1 - 2016/11/22/ PY - 2016/08/11/received PY - 2016/10/03/revised PY - 2016/10/24/accepted PY - 2016/11/27/pubmed PY - 2017/6/14/medline PY - 2016/11/27/entrez KW - Abortion KW - endocrinology KW - meta-analysis KW - progesterone KW - review SP - 430 EP - 438.e3 JF - Fertility and sterility JO - Fertil. Steril. VL - 107 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with progestogens in the first trimester of pregnancy would decrease the incidence of miscarriage in women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage. INTERVENTION(S): Randomized, controlled trials were identified by searching electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled trials comparing supplementation with progestogens (i.e., intervention group) in the first trimester of pregnancy with control (either placebo or no treatment) in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage. All types of progestogens, including natural P and synthetic progestins, were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcome was the incidence of miscarriage. The summary measures were reported as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULT(S): Ten trials including 1,586 women with recurrent miscarriage were analyzed. Eight studies used placebo as control and were double-blind. Regarding the intervention, two RCTs used natural P, whereas the other eight studies used progestins: medroxyprogesterone, cyclopentylenol ether of progesterone, dydrogesterone, or 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Pooled data from the 10 trials showed that women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage who were randomized to the progestogens group in the first trimester and before 16 weeks had a lower risk of recurrent miscarriage (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97) and higher live birth rate (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.15) compared with those who did not. No statistically significant differences were found in the other secondary outcomes, including preterm birth (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71-1.66), neonatal mortality (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.44-7.34), and fetal genital abnormalities (RR 1.68, 95% CI 0.22-12.62). CONCLUSION(S): Our findings provide evidence that supplementation with progestogens may reduce the incidence of recurrent miscarriages and seem to be safe for the fetuses. Synthetic progestogens, including weekly IM 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, but not natural P, were associated with a lower risk of recurrent miscarriage. Given the limitations of the studies included in our meta-analysis, it is difficult to recommend route and dose of progestogen therapy. Further head-to-head trials of P types, dosing, and route of administration are required. SN - 1556-5653 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27887710/Supplementation_with_progestogens_in_the_first_trimester_of_pregnancy_to_prevent_miscarriage_in_women_with_unexplained_recurrent_miscarriage:_a_systematic_review_and_meta_analysis_of_randomized_controlled_trials_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0015-0282(16)62954-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -