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Protective Effect of the Sulfated Agaran Isolated from the Red Seaweed Laurencia aldingensis Against Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Snake, Lachesis muta.
Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2016 Dec; 18(6):619-629.MB

Abstract

Snakebite is a serious occupational hazard affecting mainly rural populations of tropical and subtropical developing countries. Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) bites are extremely serious but are rarely reported in the literature. Bushmaster envenomings are characterized by intense local pain, edema, neurotoxicity, hypotension, local hemorrhage, and dramatic systemic alterations. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century; however, it fails to neutralize local tissue damage and hemorrhage, leading to morbidity or disabilities in victims. Thus, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. The present work characterizes, for the first time, a sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed, Laurencia aldingensis, including its neutralizing effect on some toxic activities of L. muta venom. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed that L. aldingensis produces sulfated agarans with the A-units partially C-2 sulfated or 6-O-methoxylated presetting the B-units in the cyclized (3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose) or in the non-cyclized form (α-L-galactose). The latter is significantly substituted by sulfate groups on C-6. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that this sulfated agaran inhibited hemolysis, coagulation, proteolysis, edema, and hemorrhage of L. muta venom. Neutralization of hemorrhagic activity was also observed when the agaran was administered by different routes and after or before the venom injection. Furthermore, the agaran blocked the edema caused by a phospholipase A2 isolated from the L. muta venom. Experimental evidence therefore indicates that the sulfated agaran of L. aldingensis has potential to aid antivenom therapy of accidents caused by L. muta venom and may help to develop more effective antivenom treatments of snake bites in general.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 24020-141, Brazil.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, CEP 81531-980, Brazil.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, CEP 81531-980, Brazil. eugenia.duarte@pq.cnpq.br.Secretary of São Paulo State for Environment, Institute of Botany, São Paulo, SP, CEP 04301-012, Brazil.Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins from Animal Venoms, Research and Development Center, Ezequiel Dias Foundation, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, CEP 30510-010, Brazil.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, CEP 81531-980, Brazil.Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 24020-141, Brazil. andrefuly@id.uff.br.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27888371

Citation

da Silva, Ana Cláudia Rodrigues, et al. "Protective Effect of the Sulfated Agaran Isolated From the Red Seaweed Laurencia Aldingensis Against Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Snake, Lachesis Muta." Marine Biotechnology (New York, N.Y.), vol. 18, no. 6, 2016, pp. 619-629.
da Silva AC, Ferreira LG, Duarte ME, et al. Protective Effect of the Sulfated Agaran Isolated from the Red Seaweed Laurencia aldingensis Against Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Snake, Lachesis muta. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2016;18(6):619-629.
da Silva, A. C., Ferreira, L. G., Duarte, M. E., Fujii, M. T., Sanchez, E. F., Noseda, M. D., & Fuly, A. L. (2016). Protective Effect of the Sulfated Agaran Isolated from the Red Seaweed Laurencia aldingensis Against Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Snake, Lachesis muta. Marine Biotechnology (New York, N.Y.), 18(6), 619-629. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-016-9722-8
da Silva AC, et al. Protective Effect of the Sulfated Agaran Isolated From the Red Seaweed Laurencia Aldingensis Against Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Snake, Lachesis Muta. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2016;18(6):619-629. PubMed PMID: 27888371.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Protective Effect of the Sulfated Agaran Isolated from the Red Seaweed Laurencia aldingensis Against Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Snake, Lachesis muta. AU - da Silva,Ana Cláudia Rodrigues, AU - Ferreira,Luciana Garcia, AU - Duarte,Maria Eugênia Rabello, AU - Fujii,Mutue Toyota, AU - Sanchez,Eladio Flores, AU - Noseda,Miguel Daniel, AU - Fuly,André Lopes, Y1 - 2016/11/25/ PY - 2015/09/14/received PY - 2016/09/28/accepted PY - 2016/11/27/pubmed PY - 2017/4/30/medline PY - 2016/11/27/entrez KW - Antivenom treatment KW - Chemical structure KW - Lachesis muta KW - Laurencia aldingensis KW - Snake venom KW - Sulfated agaran SP - 619 EP - 629 JF - Marine biotechnology (New York, N.Y.) JO - Mar Biotechnol (NY) VL - 18 IS - 6 N2 - Snakebite is a serious occupational hazard affecting mainly rural populations of tropical and subtropical developing countries. Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) bites are extremely serious but are rarely reported in the literature. Bushmaster envenomings are characterized by intense local pain, edema, neurotoxicity, hypotension, local hemorrhage, and dramatic systemic alterations. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century; however, it fails to neutralize local tissue damage and hemorrhage, leading to morbidity or disabilities in victims. Thus, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. The present work characterizes, for the first time, a sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed, Laurencia aldingensis, including its neutralizing effect on some toxic activities of L. muta venom. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed that L. aldingensis produces sulfated agarans with the A-units partially C-2 sulfated or 6-O-methoxylated presetting the B-units in the cyclized (3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose) or in the non-cyclized form (α-L-galactose). The latter is significantly substituted by sulfate groups on C-6. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that this sulfated agaran inhibited hemolysis, coagulation, proteolysis, edema, and hemorrhage of L. muta venom. Neutralization of hemorrhagic activity was also observed when the agaran was administered by different routes and after or before the venom injection. Furthermore, the agaran blocked the edema caused by a phospholipase A2 isolated from the L. muta venom. Experimental evidence therefore indicates that the sulfated agaran of L. aldingensis has potential to aid antivenom therapy of accidents caused by L. muta venom and may help to develop more effective antivenom treatments of snake bites in general. SN - 1436-2236 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27888371/Protective_Effect_of_the_Sulfated_Agaran_Isolated_from_the_Red_Seaweed_Laurencia_aldingensis_Against_Toxic_Effects_of_the_Venom_of_the_Snake_Lachesis_muta_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -