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Analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid before and after the introduction of government subsidies for pneumococcal and H. influenzae type b vaccines in Japan.
J Infect Chemother. 2017 Feb; 23(2):85-89.JI

Abstract

This study aimed to identify trends in frequency, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid specimens of children aged≤15 years (mean, 2 years), before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and the H. influenzae type b vaccine, at a pediatric facility in Japan. Sixty-six S. pneumoniae and 88 H. influenzae strains were isolated from 820 middle ear fluid samples. Serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed. The study time-frame was divided into period 1 (2007-2010) and period 2 (2011-2014), according to the availability of vaccine public funding. The S. pneumoniae detection rate decreased from 9.6% in period 1-6.1% in period 2 (p = 0.042). PCV7 serotypes decreased from 56.8% to 9.1% (p = 0.0002). No significant change was observed for the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes: 72.7% in period 1 and 59.1% in period 2. Penicillin-resistant strains (penicillin G-MIC ≥2 μg/mL) decreased from 25% to 4.5% (p = 0.038). Detection rates for H. influenzae did not change significantly: 10.3% in period 1 and 11.3% in period 2. Serotypes were mostly non-typeable: 97.9% in period 1 and 90.2% in period 2, and only one serotype b strain was isolated in each period. The frequency of ampicillin-resistant strains (MIC ≥4 μg/mL) did not change. These results show a preventative effect of PCV7 on otitis media due to S. pneumoniae. PCV7 was replaced with PCV13 in 2013 in Japan; therefore, a further decrease in pneumococcal otitis media is anticipated in the future.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Infectious Diseases, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address: t.hshn12@pref.chiba.lg.jp.Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.Division of Infectious Diseases, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, Japan.Division of Infectious Diseases, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, Japan.Division of Infectious Diseases, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, Japan.Division of Clinical Laboratory, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, Japan.Division of Clinical Laboratory, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, Japan.Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, Japan.Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, Japan.Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27889249

Citation

Hoshino, Tadashi, et al. "Analysis of Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Haemophilus Influenzae Isolated From Middle Ear Fluid Before and After the Introduction of Government Subsidies for Pneumococcal and H. Influenzae Type B Vaccines in Japan." Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy : Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy, vol. 23, no. 2, 2017, pp. 85-89.
Hoshino T, Takeuchi N, Fukasawa C, et al. Analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid before and after the introduction of government subsidies for pneumococcal and H. influenzae type b vaccines in Japan. J Infect Chemother. 2017;23(2):85-89.
Hoshino, T., Takeuchi, N., Fukasawa, C., Hirose, S., Okui, H., Sato, H., Sato, M., Arimoto, Y., Nakano, A., & Ishiwada, N. (2017). Analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid before and after the introduction of government subsidies for pneumococcal and H. influenzae type b vaccines in Japan. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy : Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy, 23(2), 85-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2016.10.008
Hoshino T, et al. Analysis of Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Haemophilus Influenzae Isolated From Middle Ear Fluid Before and After the Introduction of Government Subsidies for Pneumococcal and H. Influenzae Type B Vaccines in Japan. J Infect Chemother. 2017;23(2):85-89. PubMed PMID: 27889249.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid before and after the introduction of government subsidies for pneumococcal and H. influenzae type b vaccines in Japan. AU - Hoshino,Tadashi, AU - Takeuchi,Noriko, AU - Fukasawa,Chie, AU - Hirose,Shoko, AU - Okui,Hideyuki, AU - Sato,Hiroko, AU - Sato,Mari, AU - Arimoto,Yukiko, AU - Nakano,Atsuko, AU - Ishiwada,Naruhiko, Y1 - 2016/11/23/ PY - 2016/09/02/received PY - 2016/10/03/revised PY - 2016/10/25/accepted PY - 2016/11/28/pubmed PY - 2017/6/8/medline PY - 2016/11/28/entrez KW - Haemophilus influenzae KW - Japan KW - Middle ear fluid KW - Serotypes KW - Streptococcus pneumoniae SP - 85 EP - 89 JF - Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy JO - J Infect Chemother VL - 23 IS - 2 N2 - This study aimed to identify trends in frequency, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid specimens of children aged≤15 years (mean, 2 years), before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and the H. influenzae type b vaccine, at a pediatric facility in Japan. Sixty-six S. pneumoniae and 88 H. influenzae strains were isolated from 820 middle ear fluid samples. Serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed. The study time-frame was divided into period 1 (2007-2010) and period 2 (2011-2014), according to the availability of vaccine public funding. The S. pneumoniae detection rate decreased from 9.6% in period 1-6.1% in period 2 (p = 0.042). PCV7 serotypes decreased from 56.8% to 9.1% (p = 0.0002). No significant change was observed for the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes: 72.7% in period 1 and 59.1% in period 2. Penicillin-resistant strains (penicillin G-MIC ≥2 μg/mL) decreased from 25% to 4.5% (p = 0.038). Detection rates for H. influenzae did not change significantly: 10.3% in period 1 and 11.3% in period 2. Serotypes were mostly non-typeable: 97.9% in period 1 and 90.2% in period 2, and only one serotype b strain was isolated in each period. The frequency of ampicillin-resistant strains (MIC ≥4 μg/mL) did not change. These results show a preventative effect of PCV7 on otitis media due to S. pneumoniae. PCV7 was replaced with PCV13 in 2013 in Japan; therefore, a further decrease in pneumococcal otitis media is anticipated in the future. SN - 1437-7780 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27889249/Analysis_of_Streptococcus_pneumoniae_and_Haemophilus_influenzae_isolated_from_middle_ear_fluid_before_and_after_the_introduction_of_government_subsidies_for_pneumococcal_and_H__influenzae_type_b_vaccines_in_Japan_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -