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Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is a positive predictor of iron status in 6- to 10-month-old infants in rural Kenya.
Matern Child Nutr. 2017 10; 13(4)MC

Abstract

The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is high in infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants to 6 months of age is recommended by the World Health Organization, but breast milk is low in iron. Some studies suggest exclusive breastfeeding, although beneficial for the infant, may increase risk for IDA in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to determine if duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with anemia and iron deficiency in rural Kenyan infants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6-10-month-old infants (n = 134) in southern coastal Kenya. Anthropometrics, hemoglobin (Hb), plasma ferritin (PF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and C-reactive protein were measured. Body iron stores were calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio. Socioeconomic factors, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, nature of complementary diet, and demographic characteristics were determined using a questionnaire. Mean ± SD age of the infants was 7.7 ± 0.8 months. Prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA were 74.6%, 82.1%, and 64.9%, respectively. Months of exclusive breastfeeding correlated positively with Hb (r = 0.187; p < .05) and negatively with sTfR (r = -0.246; p < .05). sTfR concentrations were lower in infants exclusively breastfed at least 6 months compared with those exclusively breastfed for less than 6 months (7.6 (6.3, 9) vs. 8.9 (6.7, 13.4); p < .05). Controlling for gender, birth weight, and inflammation, months spent exclusively breastfeeding was a significant negative predictor of sTfR and a positive predictor of Hb (p < .05). The IDA prevalence in rural Kenyan infants is high, and greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding predicts better iron status and higher Hb in this age group.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Public Health, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya. International Centre for Behavioural Studies, Mombasa, Kenya.School of Public Health, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.Human Nutrition Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.Human Nutrition Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.Kantonsschule Wattwil, Wattwil, Switzerland.Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya.International Centre for Behavioural Studies, Mombasa, Kenya.Human Nutrition Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.Human Nutrition Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27896919

Citation

Uyoga, Mary A., et al. "Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding Is a Positive Predictor of Iron Status in 6- to 10-month-old Infants in Rural Kenya." Maternal & Child Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 4, 2017.
Uyoga MA, Karanja S, Paganini D, et al. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is a positive predictor of iron status in 6- to 10-month-old infants in rural Kenya. Matern Child Nutr. 2017;13(4).
Uyoga, M. A., Karanja, S., Paganini, D., Cercamondi, C. I., Zimmermann, S. A., Ngugi, B., Holding, P., Moretti, D., & Zimmermann, M. B. (2017). Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is a positive predictor of iron status in 6- to 10-month-old infants in rural Kenya. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 13(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12386
Uyoga MA, et al. Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding Is a Positive Predictor of Iron Status in 6- to 10-month-old Infants in Rural Kenya. Matern Child Nutr. 2017;13(4) PubMed PMID: 27896919.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is a positive predictor of iron status in 6- to 10-month-old infants in rural Kenya. AU - Uyoga,Mary A, AU - Karanja,Simon, AU - Paganini,Daniela, AU - Cercamondi,Colin I, AU - Zimmermann,Sophie A, AU - Ngugi,Benjamin, AU - Holding,Penny, AU - Moretti,Diego, AU - Zimmermann,Michael B, Y1 - 2016/11/29/ PY - 2016/01/19/received PY - 2016/07/26/revised PY - 2016/08/23/accepted PY - 2016/11/30/pubmed PY - 2018/6/15/medline PY - 2016/11/30/entrez KW - Kenya KW - anemia KW - exclusive breastfeeding KW - infants KW - iron deficiency KW - iron deficiency anemia JF - Maternal & child nutrition JO - Matern Child Nutr VL - 13 IS - 4 N2 - The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is high in infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants to 6 months of age is recommended by the World Health Organization, but breast milk is low in iron. Some studies suggest exclusive breastfeeding, although beneficial for the infant, may increase risk for IDA in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to determine if duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with anemia and iron deficiency in rural Kenyan infants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6-10-month-old infants (n = 134) in southern coastal Kenya. Anthropometrics, hemoglobin (Hb), plasma ferritin (PF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and C-reactive protein were measured. Body iron stores were calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio. Socioeconomic factors, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, nature of complementary diet, and demographic characteristics were determined using a questionnaire. Mean ± SD age of the infants was 7.7 ± 0.8 months. Prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA were 74.6%, 82.1%, and 64.9%, respectively. Months of exclusive breastfeeding correlated positively with Hb (r = 0.187; p < .05) and negatively with sTfR (r = -0.246; p < .05). sTfR concentrations were lower in infants exclusively breastfed at least 6 months compared with those exclusively breastfed for less than 6 months (7.6 (6.3, 9) vs. 8.9 (6.7, 13.4); p < .05). Controlling for gender, birth weight, and inflammation, months spent exclusively breastfeeding was a significant negative predictor of sTfR and a positive predictor of Hb (p < .05). The IDA prevalence in rural Kenyan infants is high, and greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding predicts better iron status and higher Hb in this age group. SN - 1740-8709 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27896919/Duration_of_exclusive_breastfeeding_is_a_positive_predictor_of_iron_status_in_6__to_10_month_old_infants_in_rural_Kenya_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12386 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -