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Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 01; 78(1):e8-e17.JC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics.

METHODS

From 2000-2002, we recruited 523 offspring (age 13-25 years) of 366 patients who had received specialized treatment for depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Offspring DSM-IV mood (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) were assessed at baseline and at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year follow-up.

RESULTS

Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of mood and/or anxiety disorder was 38.0% at age 20 years and 64.7% at age 35 years. Parental early disorder onset (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.77), having 2 affected parents (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), and offspring female gender (HR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.74-3.15) were independent predictors of offspring mood and/or anxiety disorder. Balanced family functioning (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96) was found to be protective against offspring risk.

CONCLUSIONS

Offspring of depressed and anxious patients are at very high risk of a mood and/or anxiety disorder themselves. Parental early onset, having 2 affected parents, female gender, and family functioning are important additional markers that can be used in clinical practice to identify those offspring at greatest risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation, CC72, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. p.j.havinga@umcg.nl. University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation (ICPE), Groningen, The Netherlands.University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation (ICPE), Groningen, The Netherlands.University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation (ICPE), Groningen, The Netherlands.Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.GGZ Friesland, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, EMGO institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation (ICPE), Groningen, The Netherlands.University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27898206

Citation

Havinga, Petra J., et al. "Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: a Prospective Cohort Study." The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 78, no. 1, 2017, pp. e8-e17.
Havinga PJ, Boschloo L, Bloemen AJ, et al. Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78(1):e8-e17.
Havinga, P. J., Boschloo, L., Bloemen, A. J., Nauta, M. H., de Vries, S. O., Penninx, B. W., Schoevers, R. A., & Hartman, C. A. (2017). Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 78(1), e8-e17. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15m09936
Havinga PJ, et al. Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: a Prospective Cohort Study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78(1):e8-e17. PubMed PMID: 27898206.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study. AU - Havinga,Petra J, AU - Boschloo,Lynn, AU - Bloemen,Annelene J P, AU - Nauta,Maaike H, AU - de Vries,Sybolt O, AU - Penninx,Brenda W J H, AU - Schoevers,Robert A, AU - Hartman,Catharina A, PY - 2015/03/03/received PY - 2016/01/12/accepted PY - 2016/11/30/pubmed PY - 2017/6/10/medline PY - 2016/11/30/entrez SP - e8 EP - e17 JF - The Journal of clinical psychiatry JO - J Clin Psychiatry VL - 78 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics. METHODS: From 2000-2002, we recruited 523 offspring (age 13-25 years) of 366 patients who had received specialized treatment for depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Offspring DSM-IV mood (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) were assessed at baseline and at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year follow-up. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of mood and/or anxiety disorder was 38.0% at age 20 years and 64.7% at age 35 years. Parental early disorder onset (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.77), having 2 affected parents (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), and offspring female gender (HR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.74-3.15) were independent predictors of offspring mood and/or anxiety disorder. Balanced family functioning (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96) was found to be protective against offspring risk. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of depressed and anxious patients are at very high risk of a mood and/or anxiety disorder themselves. Parental early onset, having 2 affected parents, female gender, and family functioning are important additional markers that can be used in clinical practice to identify those offspring at greatest risk. SN - 1555-2101 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27898206/Doomed_for_Disorder_High_Incidence_of_Mood_and_Anxiety_Disorders_in_Offspring_of_Depressed_and_Anxious_Patients:_A_Prospective_Cohort_Study_ L2 - http://www.psychiatrist.com/JCP/article/Pages/2017/v78n01/v78n0102.aspx DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -