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Free and Glucuronide Whole Blood Cannabinoids' Pharmacokinetics after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users: Identification of Recent Cannabis Intake.
Clin Chem. 2016 Dec; 62(12):1579-1592.CC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is increasing interest in markers of recent cannabis use because following frequent cannabis intake, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may be detected in blood for up to 30 days. The minor cannabinoids cannabidiol, cannabinol (CBN), and THC-glucuronide were previously detected for ≤2.1 h in frequent and occasional smokers' blood after cannabis smoking. Cannabigerol (CBG), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV might also be recent use markers, but their blood pharmacokinetics have not been investigated. Additionally, while smoking is the most common administration route, vaporization and edibles are frequently used.

METHODS

We characterized blood pharmacokinetics of THC, its phase I and phase II glucuronide metabolites, and minor cannabinoids in occasional and frequent cannabis smokers for 54 (occasional) and 72 (frequent) hours after controlled smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration.

RESULTS

Few differences were observed between smoked and vaporized blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics, while significantly greater 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) and THCCOOH-glucuronide concentrations occurred following oral cannabis. CBG and CBN were frequently identified after inhalation routes with short detection windows, but not detected following oral dosing. Implementation of a combined THC ≥5 μg/L plus THCCOOH/11-hydroxy-THC ratio <20 cutoff produced detection windows <8 h after all routes for frequent smokers; no occasional smoker was positive 1.5 h or 12 h following inhaled or oral cannabis, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Vaporization and smoking provide comparable cannabinoid delivery. CBG and CBN are recent-use cannabis markers after cannabis inhalation, but their absence does not exclude recent use. Multiple, complimentary criteria should be implemented in conjunction with impairment observations to improve interpretation of cannabinoid tests. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02177513.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD. Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, MD.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD; kscheidweiler@intra.nida.nih.gov.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD. University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27899456

Citation

Newmeyer, Matthew N., et al. "Free and Glucuronide Whole Blood Cannabinoids' Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users: Identification of Recent Cannabis Intake." Clinical Chemistry, vol. 62, no. 12, 2016, pp. 1579-1592.
Newmeyer MN, Swortwood MJ, Barnes AJ, et al. Free and Glucuronide Whole Blood Cannabinoids' Pharmacokinetics after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users: Identification of Recent Cannabis Intake. Clin Chem. 2016;62(12):1579-1592.
Newmeyer, M. N., Swortwood, M. J., Barnes, A. J., Abulseoud, O. A., Scheidweiler, K. B., & Huestis, M. A. (2016). Free and Glucuronide Whole Blood Cannabinoids' Pharmacokinetics after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users: Identification of Recent Cannabis Intake. Clinical Chemistry, 62(12), 1579-1592.
Newmeyer MN, et al. Free and Glucuronide Whole Blood Cannabinoids' Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users: Identification of Recent Cannabis Intake. Clin Chem. 2016;62(12):1579-1592. PubMed PMID: 27899456.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Free and Glucuronide Whole Blood Cannabinoids' Pharmacokinetics after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users: Identification of Recent Cannabis Intake. AU - Newmeyer,Matthew N, AU - Swortwood,Madeleine J, AU - Barnes,Allan J, AU - Abulseoud,Osama A, AU - Scheidweiler,Karl B, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2016/10/10/ PY - 2016/07/04/received PY - 2016/09/06/accepted PY - 2016/12/1/entrez PY - 2016/12/3/pubmed PY - 2017/6/2/medline SP - 1579 EP - 1592 JF - Clinical chemistry JO - Clin Chem VL - 62 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in markers of recent cannabis use because following frequent cannabis intake, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may be detected in blood for up to 30 days. The minor cannabinoids cannabidiol, cannabinol (CBN), and THC-glucuronide were previously detected for ≤2.1 h in frequent and occasional smokers' blood after cannabis smoking. Cannabigerol (CBG), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV might also be recent use markers, but their blood pharmacokinetics have not been investigated. Additionally, while smoking is the most common administration route, vaporization and edibles are frequently used. METHODS: We characterized blood pharmacokinetics of THC, its phase I and phase II glucuronide metabolites, and minor cannabinoids in occasional and frequent cannabis smokers for 54 (occasional) and 72 (frequent) hours after controlled smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration. RESULTS: Few differences were observed between smoked and vaporized blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics, while significantly greater 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) and THCCOOH-glucuronide concentrations occurred following oral cannabis. CBG and CBN were frequently identified after inhalation routes with short detection windows, but not detected following oral dosing. Implementation of a combined THC ≥5 μg/L plus THCCOOH/11-hydroxy-THC ratio <20 cutoff produced detection windows <8 h after all routes for frequent smokers; no occasional smoker was positive 1.5 h or 12 h following inhaled or oral cannabis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Vaporization and smoking provide comparable cannabinoid delivery. CBG and CBN are recent-use cannabis markers after cannabis inhalation, but their absence does not exclude recent use. Multiple, complimentary criteria should be implemented in conjunction with impairment observations to improve interpretation of cannabinoid tests. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02177513. SN - 1530-8561 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27899456/Free_and_Glucuronide_Whole_Blood_Cannabinoids'_Pharmacokinetics_after_Controlled_Smoked_Vaporized_and_Oral_Cannabis_Administration_in_Frequent_and_Occasional_Cannabis_Users:_Identification_of_Recent_Cannabis_Intake_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/clinchem/article-lookup/doi/10.1373/clinchem.2016.263475 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -