Lipoprotein redox status evaluation as a marker of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with inflammatory disease.Mol Med Rep 2017; 15(1):256-262MM
Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders (ID) have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, and routinely determined parameters do not reveal the real metabolic status of specific subgroups, such as patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, in order to evaluate state of the art markers for the assessment of cardiometabolic risk, abnormalities in lipoprotein levels in patients with a low‑grade inflammatory status [diabetes mellitus (DM) subgroup] and in patients with a high systemic inflammatory burden (RA subgroup) was determined. The study group comprised patients with ID [DM (n=20) and RA (n=20)], with an aged‑matched control group (n=17). Patient serum was used to determine routine biochemical parameters and to isolate low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) and high‑density lipoprotein (HDL). The heparin‑citrate method was used for LDL precipitation and the phosphotungstic acid‑MgCl2 technique for the isolation of HDL. Further, Amplex Red and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) assays were applied to determine lipid peroxides and protein oxidation, respectively, while the levels of serum advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were also determined. Although the differences in the routinely determined lipidemic profile were notable between the DM and RA subgroups, markers of lipid peroxidation and of advanced protein oxidation/glycation did not differ significantly, indicating possible similar oxidative damage of serum lipoproteins. On the whole, as alterations in lipoprotein functionality can occur long before any changes in routinely measured biochemical parameters are observed, more sensitive markers for the assessment of cardiovascular risk are required. As AOPPs, AGEs, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and especially oxidized HDL (oxHDL) are affected during the early stages of inflammatory disease, and due to their known link to coronary artery disease, it would be wise to include these markers in the routine cardiovascular evaluation of patients with chronic inflammatory disease, such as those with RA.