Comparison of the Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Phenolics from the Fruiting Bodies of Cultivated Asian Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.Int J Med Mushrooms. 2016; 18(10):871-881.IJ
The composition profile and the antioxidant properties of phenolics in water extracts obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of 4 common cultivated Asian edible mushrooms-Agrocybe aegerita, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and Pholiota nameko were compared. The water extract from A. aegerita (AaE) had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) at 54.18 ± 0.27 gallic acid equivalents (μmol/L)/mg extract (P < 0.05), as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and consisted of the largest number (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid) and total amounts of phenolic acids identified by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The water extract of Ph. nameko was found to have the second-highest TPC (43.55 ± 0.10 gallic acid equivalents [μmol/L]/mg extract), followed by the water extract of P. eryngii and the water extract of P. ostreatus (39.55 ± 0.25 and 39.02 ± 0.30 gallic acid equivalents/mg extract, respectively). The scavenging activities of the water extracts from these mushrooms were evaluated against 2,2-diphenyl-l-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and hydrogen peroxide. Based on halfmaximal effective concentrations, AaE was more effective in scavenging hydrogen peroxide (<0.05), followed by DPPH (0.51 mg/mL), superoxide anion radicals (0.85 mg/mL) and hydroxyl radicals (5.94 mg/mL), then the other mushroom water extracts. The differences in the half-maximal effective concentrations of individual mushroom water extracts were probably the result of the different numbers and amounts of individual phenolic acids in the extracts. The antioxidant activities of the mushroom water extracts were correlated with their TPC. The strongest antioxidant properties of AaE were consistent with its highest TPC and with the largest number and amount of phenolics identified in the extract. These results indicated that cultivated edible mushrooms could be a potential source of natural antioxidants with free radical scavenging properties for application as a functional food ingredient.