Functional and radiographic outcomes of hallux valgus correction by mini-invasive surgery with Reverdin-Isham and Akin percutaneous osteotomies: a longitudinal prospective study with a 48-month follow-up.J Orthop Surg Res 2016; 11(1):157JO
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) represents one of the most innovative surgical treatments of hallux valgus (HV). However, long-term outcomes still remain a matter of discussion within the orthopaedic community. The purpose of this longitudinal prospective study was to evaluate radiographic and functional outcomes in patients with mild-to-severe HV who underwent Reverdin-Isham and Akin percutaneous osteotomy, following exostosectomy and lateral release.
Eighty patients with mild-to-severe symptomatic HV were treated by MIS. Clinical evaluation was assessed preoperatively, as well as at 3 and 12 months after surgery and at final follow-up of 48 months, using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux grading system. Patient satisfaction and complications were recorded. Computer-assisted measurement of antero-posterior radiographs was taken preoperatively, as well as at 3 and 12 months after surgery and at 48-month follow-up, analysing the intermetatarsal angle (IMA), the hallux valgus angle (HVA), the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) and the tibial sesamoid position. Also, the bridging bone/callus formation was evaluated at the different radiographic follow-ups, while the articular surface congruency and the metatarsal index were calculated only preoperatively and at the last follow-up. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the visual analogue score (VAS). Statistical analysis was carried out using the paired t test. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
The mean AOFAS score was 87.15 points at the final follow-up of 48 months, and the VAS score was 8.35/10. The post-operative radiographic assessments showed a statistically significant improvement compared with preoperative values. The mean corrections of each angular value at the last follow-up were as follows: IMA 3.90°, HVA 12.50°, DMAA 4.72° and a tibial sesamoid position of 1.10. The articular surface was congruent in 77 (96.25%) cases and incongruent only in 3 (3.75%). The complete healing of the osteotomies was achieved in all series at 3-month follow-up. However, the results obtained in the correction of the severe HV deformities were less encouraging.
Minimally invasive surgery with Reverdin-Isham and Akin percutaneous osteotomy, in combination with previous exostosectomy and subsequent lateral soft-tissue release, is a safe, effective and reliable procedure for correction of mild-to-moderate HV. However, it requires a long learning curve because of the inherent difficulty of the mixed different surgical procedures.
ClinicalTrials.gov PRS Protocol Registration and Results System: NCT02886221.