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[Frequency and timing of meals and changes in body mass index: Analysis of the data from the Adventist Health Study-2].
Vnitr Lek. 2016 Fall; 62(11 Suppl 4):S15-20.VL

Abstract

GOAL

Our study focuses on examining the relationship between the frequency and timing of meals and changes in BMI in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) which represents a relatively healthy population in North America.

METHODOLOGY

A longitudinal analysis was undertaken using data from 48 673 individuals monitored over an average period of 7.43 ± 1.24 years. The number of meals per day, length of nighttime fasting, eating breakfast and timing of the largest meal of the day (breakfast 5-11 a.m., lunch noon-4 p.m. or supper/dinner 5-11 p.m.) were used as independent variables. The primary output was the change in body mass index (BMI) once in a year. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for all important demographic factors and lifestyle factors.

RESULTS

Consumption of 1 and 2 meals a day was associated with decrease in BMI (-0.04; 95% CI -0.06 to -0.03 and -0.02; 95% CI -0.03 to -0,01 kg.m-2 per year, respectively). On the other hand, consumption of 3 or more meals a day was associated with increase in BMI, in a linear relation (p < 0.001). BMI of those who skipped breakfast increased (0.029; 95% CI 0.021-0.037 kg.m-2 per year; p = 0.002) as compared to no BMI change in those who had breakfast (-0.0002; 95% CI -0.005 to + 0.004 kg.m-2 per year). Those, whose largest meal of the day was breakfast, recorded no significant change in BMI (-0.002 95% CI -0.008 to +0.004 kg.m-2 per year). On the contrary, the largest supper was associated with the greatest increase in BMI (0.034; 95% CI 0.029-0.040 kg.m-2 per year).

CONCLUSION

Our results indicate that eating less frequently, consuming breakfast and having the largest meal in the morning hours may be effective measures to prevent weight gain.Key words: body mass index (BMI) - frequency and timing of meals - body mass regulation - breakfast.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

cze

PubMed ID

27921420

Citation

Kahleová, Hana, et al. "[Frequency and Timing of Meals and Changes in Body Mass Index: Analysis of the Data From the Adventist Health Study-2]." Vnitrni Lekarstvi, vol. 62, no. 11 Suppl 4, 2016, pp. S15-20.
Kahleová H, Lloren JI, Mashchak A, et al. [Frequency and timing of meals and changes in body mass index: Analysis of the data from the Adventist Health Study-2]. Vnitr Lek. 2016;62(11 Suppl 4):S15-20.
Kahleová, H., Lloren, J. I., Mashchak, A., Hill, M., & Fraser, G. (2016). [Frequency and timing of meals and changes in body mass index: Analysis of the data from the Adventist Health Study-2]. Vnitrni Lekarstvi, 62(11 Suppl 4), S15-20.
Kahleová H, et al. [Frequency and Timing of Meals and Changes in Body Mass Index: Analysis of the Data From the Adventist Health Study-2]. Vnitr Lek. 2016;62(11 Suppl 4):S15-20. PubMed PMID: 27921420.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - [Frequency and timing of meals and changes in body mass index: Analysis of the data from the Adventist Health Study-2]. AU - Kahleová,Hana, AU - Lloren,Jan Irene, AU - Mashchak,Andrew, AU - Hill,Martin, AU - Fraser,Gary, PY - 2016/12/7/entrez PY - 2016/12/7/pubmed PY - 2017/6/20/medline SP - S15 EP - 20 JF - Vnitrni lekarstvi JO - Vnitr Lek VL - 62 IS - 11 Suppl 4 N2 - GOAL: Our study focuses on examining the relationship between the frequency and timing of meals and changes in BMI in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) which represents a relatively healthy population in North America. METHODOLOGY: A longitudinal analysis was undertaken using data from 48 673 individuals monitored over an average period of 7.43 ± 1.24 years. The number of meals per day, length of nighttime fasting, eating breakfast and timing of the largest meal of the day (breakfast 5-11 a.m., lunch noon-4 p.m. or supper/dinner 5-11 p.m.) were used as independent variables. The primary output was the change in body mass index (BMI) once in a year. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for all important demographic factors and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Consumption of 1 and 2 meals a day was associated with decrease in BMI (-0.04; 95% CI -0.06 to -0.03 and -0.02; 95% CI -0.03 to -0,01 kg.m-2 per year, respectively). On the other hand, consumption of 3 or more meals a day was associated with increase in BMI, in a linear relation (p < 0.001). BMI of those who skipped breakfast increased (0.029; 95% CI 0.021-0.037 kg.m-2 per year; p = 0.002) as compared to no BMI change in those who had breakfast (-0.0002; 95% CI -0.005 to + 0.004 kg.m-2 per year). Those, whose largest meal of the day was breakfast, recorded no significant change in BMI (-0.002 95% CI -0.008 to +0.004 kg.m-2 per year). On the contrary, the largest supper was associated with the greatest increase in BMI (0.034; 95% CI 0.029-0.040 kg.m-2 per year). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that eating less frequently, consuming breakfast and having the largest meal in the morning hours may be effective measures to prevent weight gain.Key words: body mass index (BMI) - frequency and timing of meals - body mass regulation - breakfast. SN - 0042-773X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27921420/[Frequency_and_timing_of_meals_and_changes_in_body_mass_index:_Analysis_of_the_data_from_the_Adventist_Health_Study_2]_ L2 - https://www.prolekare.cz/linkout/59822 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -