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Formation mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries during the kinetically limited growth of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films.
Sci Rep 2016; 6:38296SR

Abstract

We elucidated the formation process for Ruddlesden-Popper-type defects during pulsed laser deposition of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films by a combined analysis of in-situ atomic force microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. At the early growth stage of 1.5 unit cells, the excess Sr results in the formation of SrO on the surface, resulting in a local termination change from TiO2 to SrO, thereby forming a Sr rich (2 × 2) surface reconstruction. With progressive SrTiO3 growth, islands with thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structure are formed, coexisting with TiO2 terminated islands. During the overgrowth of these thermodynamically stable islands, both lateral as well as vertical Ruddlesden-Popper-type anti-phase boundaries are formed, accommodating the Sr excess of the SrTiO3 film. We suggest the formation of thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structures as origin for the formation of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries, which are as a result of kinetic limitations confined to certain regions on the surface.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-7), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425, Jülich, Germany.Ernst Ruska-Centre (ER-C) for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425, Jülich, Germany. Central Facility for Electron Microscopy (GFE), RWTH Aachen University, 52074, Aachen, Germany.Leiden University, Huygens Kamerlingh Onnes Lab, NL-2300 RA, Leiden, Netherlands.Leiden University, Huygens Kamerlingh Onnes Lab, NL-2300 RA, Leiden, Netherlands.Ernst Ruska-Centre (ER-C) for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425, Jülich, Germany. Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425, Jülich, Germany.Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-7), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425, Jülich, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27922069

Citation

Xu, Chencheng, et al. "Formation Mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type Antiphase Boundaries During the Kinetically Limited Growth of Sr Rich SrTiO3 Thin Films." Scientific Reports, vol. 6, 2016, p. 38296.
Xu C, Du H, van der Torren AJ, et al. Formation mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries during the kinetically limited growth of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films. Sci Rep. 2016;6:38296.
Xu, C., Du, H., van der Torren, A. J., Aarts, J., Jia, C. L., & Dittmann, R. (2016). Formation mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries during the kinetically limited growth of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films. Scientific Reports, 6, p. 38296. doi:10.1038/srep38296.
Xu C, et al. Formation Mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type Antiphase Boundaries During the Kinetically Limited Growth of Sr Rich SrTiO3 Thin Films. Sci Rep. 2016 12 6;6:38296. PubMed PMID: 27922069.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Formation mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries during the kinetically limited growth of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films. AU - Xu,Chencheng, AU - Du,Hongchu, AU - van der Torren,Alexander J H, AU - Aarts,Jan, AU - Jia,Chun-Lin, AU - Dittmann,Regina, Y1 - 2016/12/06/ PY - 2016/08/25/received PY - 2016/11/07/accepted PY - 2016/12/7/entrez PY - 2016/12/7/pubmed PY - 2016/12/7/medline SP - 38296 EP - 38296 JF - Scientific reports JO - Sci Rep VL - 6 N2 - We elucidated the formation process for Ruddlesden-Popper-type defects during pulsed laser deposition of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films by a combined analysis of in-situ atomic force microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. At the early growth stage of 1.5 unit cells, the excess Sr results in the formation of SrO on the surface, resulting in a local termination change from TiO2 to SrO, thereby forming a Sr rich (2 × 2) surface reconstruction. With progressive SrTiO3 growth, islands with thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structure are formed, coexisting with TiO2 terminated islands. During the overgrowth of these thermodynamically stable islands, both lateral as well as vertical Ruddlesden-Popper-type anti-phase boundaries are formed, accommodating the Sr excess of the SrTiO3 film. We suggest the formation of thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structures as origin for the formation of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries, which are as a result of kinetic limitations confined to certain regions on the surface. SN - 2045-2322 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27922069/Formation_mechanism_of_Ruddlesden_Popper_type_antiphase_boundaries_during_the_kinetically_limited_growth_of_Sr_rich_SrTiO3_thin_films_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep38296 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -