Detecting prediabetes among Hispanics/Latinos from diverse heritage groups: Does the test matter? Findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.Prev Med. 2017 02; 95:110-118.PM
The objectives of this analysis were to compare the ability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post oral load plasma glucose (2hPG), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to identify U.S. Hispanic/Latino individuals with prediabetes, and to assess its cardiovascular risk factor correlates. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 15,507 adults without self-reported diabetes mellitus from six Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, which takes place in four U.S. communities. The prevalence of prediabetes was determined according to individual or combinations of ADA-defined cut points: FPG=5.6-7.0mmol/L, 2hPG=7.8-11.1mmol/L, and HbA1c=5.7%-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol). The sensitivity of these criteria to detect prediabetes was estimated. The prevalence ratios (PRs) for selected cardiovascular risk factors were compared among alternative categories of prediabetes versus normoglycemia [FPG<5.6mmol/L and 2hPG<7.8mmol/L and HbA1c<5.7% (39mmol/mol)]. Approximately 36% of individuals met any of the ADA prediabetes criteria. Using 2hPG as the gold standard, the sensitivity of FPG was 40.1%, HbA1c was 45.6%, and that of HbA1c+FPG was 62.2%. The number of significant PRs for cardiovascular risk factors was higher among individuals with isolated 2hPG=7.8-11.1mmol/L, FPG=5.6-7.0mmol/L+HbA1c=5.7%-6.4%, or those who met the three prediabetes criteria. Assessing FPG, HbA1c, and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos at risk might enhance the early prevention of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular complications in this young and growing population, independent of their heritage group.