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Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-).
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 05; 220(3):570-574.IJ

Abstract

Environmental effect evaluation of disinfection of combined sewer overflow events with alternative chemical disinfectants requires that the environmental toxicity of the disinfectants and the main by-products of their use are known. Many disinfectants degrade quickly in water which should be included in the evaluation of both their toxicity as determined in standardized tests and their possible negative effect in the water environment. Here we evaluated according to the standardized ISO 8692 test the toxicity towards the green microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, of three disinfectants: performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite. All of the five chemicals investigated showed clear toxicity to the algae with well-defined dose response curves. The EC50 values ranged from 0.16 to 2.9mg/L based on nominal concentrations leading to the labeling of the chemicals as either toxic or very toxic. The five investigated chemicals decreased in toxicity in the order chlorine dioxide, performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorite and hydrogen peroxide. The stability of the chemicals increased in the same order as the toxicity decrease. This indicates that even though ClO2 has the highest environmental hazard potential, it may still be suitable as an alternative disinfectant due to its rapid degradation in water.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: rakc@env.dtu.dk.Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27964897

Citation

Chhetri, Ravi Kumar, et al. "Algal Toxicity of the Alternative Disinfectants Performic Acid (PFA), Peracetic Acid (PAA), Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) and Their By-products Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Chlorite (ClO2-)." International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 220, no. 3, 2017, pp. 570-574.
Chhetri RK, Baun A, Andersen HR. Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-). Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017;220(3):570-574.
Chhetri, R. K., Baun, A., & Andersen, H. R. (2017). Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-). International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 220(3), 570-574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.11.011
Chhetri RK, Baun A, Andersen HR. Algal Toxicity of the Alternative Disinfectants Performic Acid (PFA), Peracetic Acid (PAA), Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) and Their By-products Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Chlorite (ClO2-). Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017;220(3):570-574. PubMed PMID: 27964897.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-). AU - Chhetri,Ravi Kumar, AU - Baun,Anders, AU - Andersen,Henrik Rasmus, Y1 - 2016/12/01/ PY - 2016/10/06/received PY - 2016/11/09/revised PY - 2016/11/26/accepted PY - 2016/12/15/pubmed PY - 2017/11/29/medline PY - 2016/12/15/entrez KW - Algal toxicity KW - Chlorine dioxide KW - Chlorite KW - Hydrogen peroxide KW - Peracetic acid KW - Performic acid KW - Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata SP - 570 EP - 574 JF - International journal of hygiene and environmental health JO - Int J Hyg Environ Health VL - 220 IS - 3 N2 - Environmental effect evaluation of disinfection of combined sewer overflow events with alternative chemical disinfectants requires that the environmental toxicity of the disinfectants and the main by-products of their use are known. Many disinfectants degrade quickly in water which should be included in the evaluation of both their toxicity as determined in standardized tests and their possible negative effect in the water environment. Here we evaluated according to the standardized ISO 8692 test the toxicity towards the green microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, of three disinfectants: performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite. All of the five chemicals investigated showed clear toxicity to the algae with well-defined dose response curves. The EC50 values ranged from 0.16 to 2.9mg/L based on nominal concentrations leading to the labeling of the chemicals as either toxic or very toxic. The five investigated chemicals decreased in toxicity in the order chlorine dioxide, performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorite and hydrogen peroxide. The stability of the chemicals increased in the same order as the toxicity decrease. This indicates that even though ClO2 has the highest environmental hazard potential, it may still be suitable as an alternative disinfectant due to its rapid degradation in water. SN - 1618-131X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27964897/Algal_toxicity_of_the_alternative_disinfectants_performic_acid__PFA__peracetic_acid__PAA__chlorine_dioxide__ClO2__and_their_by_products_hydrogen_peroxide__H2O2__and_chlorite__ClO2___ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1438-4639(16)30401-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -