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Acute increases in serum colonic short-chain fatty acids elicited by inulin do not increase GLP-1 or PYY responses but may reduce ghrelin in lean and overweight humans.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 08; 71(8):953-958.EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Colonic fermentation of dietary fibre to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) influences appetite hormone secretion in animals, but SCFA production is excessive in obese animals. This suggests there may be resistance to the effect of SCFA on appetite hormones in obesity.

OBJECTIVES

To determine the effects of inulin (IN) and resistant starch (RS) on postprandial SCFA, and gut hormone (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and ghrelin) responses in healthy overweight/obese (OWO) vs lean (LN) humans.

SUBJECTS/METHODS

Overnight-fasted participants (13 OWO and 12 LN) consumed 300 ml water containing 75 g glucose (GLU) as control or 75 g GLU plus 24 g IN, or 28.2 g RS using a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design. Blood for appetite hormones and SCFA was collected at intervals over 6 h. A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test drink.

RESULTS

Relative to GLU, IN, but not RS, significantly increased SCFA areas under the curve (AUC) from 4-6 h (AUC4-6). Neither IN nor RS affected GLP-1 or PYY-AUC4-6. Although neither IN nor RS reduced ghrelin-AUC4-6 compared with GLU, ghrelin at 6 h after IN was significantly lower than that after GLU (P<0.05). After IN, relative to GLU, the changes in SCFA-AUC4-6 were negatively related to the changes in ghrelin-AUC4-6 (P=0.017). SCFA and hormone responses did not differ significantly between LN and OWO.

CONCLUSIONS

Acute increases in colonic SCFA do not affect GLP-1 or PYY responses in LN or OWO subjects, but may reduce ghrelin. The results do not support the hypothesis that SCFA acutely stimulate PYY and GLP-1 secretion; however, a longer adaptation to increased colonic fermentation or a larger sample size may yield different results.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Biostatistics Unit, St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Charlton East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27966574

Citation

Rahat-Rozenbloom, S, et al. "Acute Increases in Serum Colonic Short-chain Fatty Acids Elicited By Inulin Do Not Increase GLP-1 or PYY Responses but May Reduce Ghrelin in Lean and Overweight Humans." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 8, 2017, pp. 953-958.
Rahat-Rozenbloom S, Fernandes J, Cheng J, et al. Acute increases in serum colonic short-chain fatty acids elicited by inulin do not increase GLP-1 or PYY responses but may reduce ghrelin in lean and overweight humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017;71(8):953-958.
Rahat-Rozenbloom, S., Fernandes, J., Cheng, J., & Wolever, T. M. S. (2017). Acute increases in serum colonic short-chain fatty acids elicited by inulin do not increase GLP-1 or PYY responses but may reduce ghrelin in lean and overweight humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(8), 953-958. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.249
Rahat-Rozenbloom S, et al. Acute Increases in Serum Colonic Short-chain Fatty Acids Elicited By Inulin Do Not Increase GLP-1 or PYY Responses but May Reduce Ghrelin in Lean and Overweight Humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017;71(8):953-958. PubMed PMID: 27966574.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acute increases in serum colonic short-chain fatty acids elicited by inulin do not increase GLP-1 or PYY responses but may reduce ghrelin in lean and overweight humans. AU - Rahat-Rozenbloom,S, AU - Fernandes,J, AU - Cheng,J, AU - Wolever,T M S, Y1 - 2016/12/14/ PY - 2016/06/29/received PY - 2016/10/19/revised PY - 2016/10/26/accepted PY - 2016/12/15/pubmed PY - 2018/5/1/medline PY - 2016/12/15/entrez SP - 953 EP - 958 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 71 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Colonic fermentation of dietary fibre to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) influences appetite hormone secretion in animals, but SCFA production is excessive in obese animals. This suggests there may be resistance to the effect of SCFA on appetite hormones in obesity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of inulin (IN) and resistant starch (RS) on postprandial SCFA, and gut hormone (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and ghrelin) responses in healthy overweight/obese (OWO) vs lean (LN) humans. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Overnight-fasted participants (13 OWO and 12 LN) consumed 300 ml water containing 75 g glucose (GLU) as control or 75 g GLU plus 24 g IN, or 28.2 g RS using a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design. Blood for appetite hormones and SCFA was collected at intervals over 6 h. A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test drink. RESULTS: Relative to GLU, IN, but not RS, significantly increased SCFA areas under the curve (AUC) from 4-6 h (AUC4-6). Neither IN nor RS affected GLP-1 or PYY-AUC4-6. Although neither IN nor RS reduced ghrelin-AUC4-6 compared with GLU, ghrelin at 6 h after IN was significantly lower than that after GLU (P<0.05). After IN, relative to GLU, the changes in SCFA-AUC4-6 were negatively related to the changes in ghrelin-AUC4-6 (P=0.017). SCFA and hormone responses did not differ significantly between LN and OWO. CONCLUSIONS: Acute increases in colonic SCFA do not affect GLP-1 or PYY responses in LN or OWO subjects, but may reduce ghrelin. The results do not support the hypothesis that SCFA acutely stimulate PYY and GLP-1 secretion; however, a longer adaptation to increased colonic fermentation or a larger sample size may yield different results. SN - 1476-5640 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27966574/Acute_increases_in_serum_colonic_short_chain_fatty_acids_elicited_by_inulin_do_not_increase_GLP_1_or_PYY_responses_but_may_reduce_ghrelin_in_lean_and_overweight_humans_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.249 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -