An ex vivo comparison of adenosine and lidocaine solution and University of Wisconsin solution for hypothermic machine perfusion of porcine kidneys: potential for development.J Surg Res 2017; 208:219-229JS
The optimal hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) solution has not yet been developed. An adenosine and lidocaine (AL) solution has been shown to be protective in cardiac preservation. The aim of the present study was to examine a modified AL solution with low Ca2+, 16 mM Mg2+, and 4% albumin on kidney preservation compared with University Wisconsin solution (UW).
Twenty donation of organs after cardiac death porcine kidneys underwent HMP for 10 h (AL, n = 10; UW, n = 10) and then 2 h of normothermic reperfusion. Perfusion dynamics, functional parameters, histology, and real-time microdialysis were used to assess kidney responses and viability.
During HMP, modified AL-perfused kidneys maintained higher flow rates (21.5 versus 17.9 mL/min/100 g, P = 0.01), with perfusion flow index during the first 3 h 25% greater than with UW (AL = 0.50 ± 0.2, UW = 0.40 ± 0.17 mL/min/100 g/mmHg; P = 0.03), followed by an increase in UW kidneys which was not significantly different to AL over the remaining 7 h (0.54 versus 0.55 mL/min/100 g/mmHg, respectively). During warm reperfusion, there were no significant differences between the two HMP groups in creatinine clearance, oxygen, and glucose consumption between groups. Modified AL kidneys had significantly lower perfusate lactates (3.1 versus 4.1 mmol/L, P = 0.04) during reperfusion and lower cortical lactate levels (AL = 0.66 ± 0.31, UW = 0.89 ± 0.53 mM, P = 0.33). Histology showed similar degrees of reperfusion injury.
We conclude that HMP with modified AL solution showed improved perfusion compared with UW and lower perfusate lactate levels during warm reperfusion. Further modification of the AL composition is warranted and may lead to more rapid kidney stabilization and improved graft viability assessment, potentially expanding donor pools.