Alkyl(C16, C18, C22)trimethylammonium-Based Herbicidal Ionic Liquids.J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Jan 18; 65(2):260-269.JA
In the framework of this study a synthesis methodology and characterization of long alkyl herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) based on four commonly used herbicides (2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, and dicamba) are presented. New HILs were obtained with high efficiency (>95%) using an acid-base reaction between herbicidal acids and hexadecyltrimethylammonium, octadecyltrimethylammonium, and behenyltrimethylammonium hydroxides in alcoholic medium. Among all synthesized salts, only three compounds comprising the MCPP anion were liquids at room temperature. Subsequently, the influence of both the alkyl chain length and the anion structure on their physicochemical properties (thermal decomposition profiles, solubility in 10 representative solvents, surface activity, density, viscosity, and refractive index) was determined. All HILs exhibited high thermal stability as well as surface activity; however, their solubility notably depended on both the length of the carbon chain and the structure of the anion. The herbicidal efficacy of the obtained salts was tested in greenhouse and field experiments. Greenhouse testing performed on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) and flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) as test plants indicated that HILs were characterized by similar or higher efficacy compared to commercial herbicides. The results of field trials confirmed the high activity of HILs, particularly those containing phenoxyacids as anions (MCPA, 2,4-D, and MCPP).