Ileal Digesta Nondietary Substrates from Cannulated Pigs Are Major Contributors to In Vitro Human Hindgut Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production.J Nutr. 2017 02; 147(2):264-271.JN
It has been assumed that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon originate mainly from dietary fiber fermentation. However, SCFAs in the colon are also produced from the fermentation of nondietary material.
We aimed to predict the relative contributions of dietary and nondietary substrates in the production of SCFAs with the use of a human fecal inoculum for diets containing kiwifruit as a model fiber.
Terminal ileal digesta were collected from ileal-cannulated male pigs [n = 7; mean ± SD: 41.4 ± 2.98 kg body weight] adapted (44-d feeding) to diets containing either 25 g/kg dry matter (DM) of kiwifruit fiber (KFf) (25 KFf) or 50 g/kg DM of KFf (50 KFf) and then again after receiving a fiber-free diet (n = 14) for a further 7 d. Pigs were used as a model for adult humans for digestion in the upper digestive tract (mouth to the terminal ileum). The ileal digesta (either unfractionated or fractionated into crude mucin and microbial fractions) were fermented in vitro for 24 h with the use of a fresh human fecal inoculum to predict SCFA production in the human hindgut.
SCFAs of nondietary origin were the main source (65%) of total SCFAs predicted to be produced in the human hindgut. The contribution of SCFAs from KFf was only 26% of the total SCFAs, and that from total dietary material was 35%. The higher contribution of nondietary material to total predicted SCFA production was observed at both dietary fiber concentrations. Predicted SCFA intake from dietary fiber was 76 and 105 mmol/kg diet DM intake for the diets containing 25 KFf and 50 KFf, respectively, and from the nondietary substrates it was 178 and 280 mmol/kg diet DM intake, respectively.
A considerable proportion of the SCFAs produced in the human hindgut seems to be derived from the fermentation of nondietary substrates.