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Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.
Nutrients. 2016 Dec 21; 8(12)N

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM

The association of habitual intakes of dietary nitrate (NO₃-) and nitrite (NO₂-) with blood pressure and renal function is not clear. Here, we investigated a potential effect of dietary NO₃- and NO₂- on the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

METHODS

A total of 2799 Iranian adults aged ≥20 years, participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), were included and followed for a median of 5.8 years. Dietary intakes of NO₃- and NO₂- were estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. To identify the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HTN and CKD across tertile categories of residual energy-adjusted NO₃- and NO₂- intakes, multivariate logistic regression models were used.

RESULTS

Dietary intake of NO₃- had no significant association with the risk of HTN or CKD. Compared to the lowest tertile category (median intake < 6.04 mg/day), the highest intake (median intake ≥ 12.7 mg/day) of dietary NO₂- was accompanied with a significant reduced risk of HTN, in the fully adjusted model (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98; p for trend = 0.054). The highest compared to the lowest tertile of dietary NO₂- was also accompanied with a reduced risk of CKD (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.24-0.89, p for trend = 0.07).

CONCLUSION

Our findings indicated that higher intakes of NO₂- might be an independent dietary protective factor against the development of HTN and CKD, which are major risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran. z.bahadoran@endocrine.ac.ir.Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran. mirmiran@endocrine.ac.ir.Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran. ghasemi@endocrine.ac.ir.Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden. mattias.carlstrom@ki.se.Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran. azizi@endocrine.ac.ir.Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran. fzhadaegh@endocrine.ac.ir.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28009811

Citation

Bahadoran, Zahra, et al. "Association Between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study." Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 12, 2016.
Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Ghasemi A, et al. Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Nutrients. 2016;8(12).
Bahadoran, Z., Mirmiran, P., Ghasemi, A., Carlström, M., Azizi, F., & Hadaegh, F. (2016). Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Nutrients, 8(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120811
Bahadoran Z, et al. Association Between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Nutrients. 2016 Dec 21;8(12) PubMed PMID: 28009811.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. AU - Bahadoran,Zahra, AU - Mirmiran,Parvin, AU - Ghasemi,Asghar, AU - Carlström,Mattias, AU - Azizi,Fereidoun, AU - Hadaegh,Farzad, Y1 - 2016/12/21/ PY - 2016/09/26/received PY - 2016/12/06/revised PY - 2016/12/08/accepted PY - 2016/12/24/entrez PY - 2016/12/24/pubmed PY - 2017/4/14/medline KW - chronic kidney disease KW - diet KW - glomerular filtration rate KW - hypertension KW - nitrate KW - nitrite JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 8 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIM: The association of habitual intakes of dietary nitrate (NO₃-) and nitrite (NO₂-) with blood pressure and renal function is not clear. Here, we investigated a potential effect of dietary NO₃- and NO₂- on the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: A total of 2799 Iranian adults aged ≥20 years, participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), were included and followed for a median of 5.8 years. Dietary intakes of NO₃- and NO₂- were estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. To identify the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HTN and CKD across tertile categories of residual energy-adjusted NO₃- and NO₂- intakes, multivariate logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Dietary intake of NO₃- had no significant association with the risk of HTN or CKD. Compared to the lowest tertile category (median intake < 6.04 mg/day), the highest intake (median intake ≥ 12.7 mg/day) of dietary NO₂- was accompanied with a significant reduced risk of HTN, in the fully adjusted model (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98; p for trend = 0.054). The highest compared to the lowest tertile of dietary NO₂- was also accompanied with a reduced risk of CKD (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.24-0.89, p for trend = 0.07). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that higher intakes of NO₂- might be an independent dietary protective factor against the development of HTN and CKD, which are major risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28009811/Association_between_Dietary_Intakes_of_Nitrate_and_Nitrite_and_the_Risk_of_Hypertension_and_Chronic_Kidney_Disease:_Tehran_Lipid_and_Glucose_Study_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu8120811 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -