Role of sensory afferent nerves, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes in the carbon monoxide-induced gastroprotection against stress ulcerogenesis.J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016 Oct; 67(5):717-729.JP
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a physiological gaseous mediator recently implicated in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense due to its vasodilatory and antioxidative properties. Small quantities of endogenous CO are produced during heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO-1), however, the involvement of the capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons releasing calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and anti-oxidative factors and mechanisms in the CO-induced gastroprotection against stress ulcerogenesis has been little studied. We investigated the possible role of CO released from the CO donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) in the protection against water immersion and restraint stress (WRS)-induced lesions in rats with intact sensory nerves and those with capsaicin denervation and the accompanying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) content considered as an index of lipid peroxidation, the activity of GSH and SOD-2 and gastric mucosal expression of antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and SOD-2. Wistar rats with intact sensory nerves or those with capsaicin administered in total dose of 125 mg/kg s.c. within 3 days (capsaicin denervation) were pretreated either with 1) vehicle (saline) or 2) CORM-2 (0.1 - 0 mg/kg i.g.) with or without exogenous CGRP (10 μg/kg i.p.) and 30 min later exposed to 3.5 h of WRS. At the termination of WRS, the number of gastric lesions was counted and gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique. The mucosal content of MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of SOD-2 were determined and the expression of GPx-1 and SOD-2 mRNA in the gastric mucosa was analyzed by real-time PCR. The exposure of rats to 3.5 h of WRS resulted in numerous hemorrhagic gastric lesions and significantly decreased the GBF, raised MDA content and significantly decreased the mucosal SOD and GSH contents compared with intact gastric mucosa and these changes were exacerbated in rats with capsaicin denervation. Pretreatment with CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) which in our previous studies significantly reduced the ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric damage, significantly decreased the number of WRS-induced gastric lesions while raising the GBF and significantly increasing the activity of SOD and GSH (P < 0.05). The pretreatment with CORM-2 significantly decreased MDA content as compared with vehicle-pretreated rats exposed to WRS (P < 0.05). The reduction of WRS damage and the accompanying increase in the GBF as well as the significant decrease in MDA content and the increase in GSH content and SOD activity induced by CORM-2 (1 μg/kg i.g.) were all significantly altered in rats with capsaicin denervation (P < 0.05). The concurrent treatment of CORM-2 with exogenous CGRP in rats with or without sensory nerves tended to decrease the number of WRS lesions as compared with CORM-2 alone pretreated animals and significantly increased the GBF over the values measured in gastric mucosa of CORM-2 alone pretreated rats with or without capsaicin denervation. Such combined administration of CORM-2 and CGRP in rats with capsaicin denervation significantly inhibited an increase in MDA and 4-HNE content and evoked a significant increase in the GSH concentration (P < 0.05) remaining without significant effect on the increase in SOD activity observed with CORM-2 alone. The gastric mucosal expression of SOD-2- and GPx-1 mRNA was significantly increased as compared with those in intact gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). The pretreatment with CORM-2 applied with or without CGRP failed to significantly alter the mRNA expression for SOD-2 and GPx in the gastric mucosa of rats exposed to WRS. Both, the expression of SOD-2- and GPx-1 mRNA was significantly increased in capsaicin denervated rats exposed to WRS rats (P < 0.05) and this effect was abolished by the pretreatment with CORM-2. The expression of SOD-2 tended to decrease, though insignificantly, in rats pretreated with the combination of CORM-2 and CGRP as compared with that detected in CORM-2 alone in rats with capsaicin denervation. In contrast, the mRNA expression of GPx-1 was significantly decreased in gastric mucosa of capsaicin-denervated rats treated with the combination of CORM-2 and CGRP as compared with CORM-2 alone pretreated animals. We conclude that 1) CORM-2 releasing CO exerts gastroprotective activity against stress ulcerogenesis and this effect depends upon an increase in the gastric microcirculation and the vasodilatory activity of this gaseous mediator, and 2) the sensory nerve endings releasing CGRP can contribute, at least in part, to the CO-induced gastric hyperemia, the attenuation of gastric mucosal lipid peroxidation and prevention of oxidative stress as indicated by the CORM-2-induced normalization of the antioxidative enzyme expression enhanced in gastric mucosa of capsaicin-denervated rats.