Sevoflurane pre-conditioning increases phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and HO-1 expression via inhibition of mPTP in primary rat cortical neurons exposed to OGD/R.J Neurol Sci. 2017 Jan 15; 372:171-177.JN
As an indispensable clinical inhalation anesthetic, sevoflurane is widely used for peri-operative sedation. The neuroprotective effect of sevoflurane pre-conditioning against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion has been gradually realized, but the underlying mechanism during the early reperfusion period has not been established.
Primary cultured cortical neurons were treated with 2% sevoflurane pre-conditioning for 30min, exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 90min, and followed by 60min of reperfusion (OGD/R). Additionally, neuronal cells were treated with an inhibitor of extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) phosphorylation (PD98059), a mPTP opener (atractyloside), or a mPTP opening inhibitor (cyclosporine A) before sevoflurane pre-conditioning.
Sevoflurane pre-conditioning decreased neuronal apoptosis (assessed by TUNEL), oxidative stress (assessed by malondialdehyde [MDA], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and heme oxygenase [HO]-1), and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores [mPTPs] (assessed by calcein-cobalt), but increased neuronal viability (assessed by MTT) and mitochondrial membrane potential (assessed by JC-1) after OGD/R exposure compared with OGD/R treatment alone. Pre-treatment with the mPTP opener and inhibitor of Erk1/2 phosphorylation abolished the protective effect induced by sevoflurane pre-conditioning. Pre-treatment with the mPTP opener attenuated the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in mitochondria of neuronal cultures exposed to OGD/R induced by sevoflurane pre-conditioning. The mPTP opening inhibitor, like sevoflurane pre-conditioning, increased phosphorylation of Erk1/2 after OGD/R exposure, while PD98059 failed to reverse inhibition of mPTP opening in cultures exposed to OGD/R induced by sevoflurane pre-conditioning.
The neuroprotective mechanism of sevoflurane pre-conditioning might be associated with increased Erk1/2 phosphorylation in mitochondria via inhibition of mPTP opening in the early reperfusion period.