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Emerging Zika Virus Infection: A Rapidly Evolving Situation.

Abstract

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults. The primary mode of transmission of Zika virus between humans is through the bite of an infected female mosquito of the Aedes genus, but also sexual and blood transfusion transmission may occur. Moreover, a case of non-sexual spread from one person to another has been described, indicating that we still have more to learn about Zika transmission.Biological basis for pathogenetic effects are under investigation. Laboratory diagnosis is challenging since, so far, there are no "gold standard" diagnostic tools, and the low and short viremia in the acute phase, and together with the high cross-reactivity among the members of flavivirus genus are the most challenging aspects to be overcome.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Laboratory of virology, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani", IRCCS, Via Portuense 292, 00149, Rome, Italy.

    ,

    Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

    ,

    Laboratory of virology, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani", IRCCS, Via Portuense 292, 00149, Rome, Italy.

    ,

    Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Disease Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani", IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

    ,

    Laboratory of virology, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani", IRCCS, Via Portuense 292, 00149, Rome, Italy. maria.capobianchi@inmi.it.

    Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil.

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Central Nervous System Infections
    Communicable Diseases, Emerging
    Disease Outbreaks
    Disease Reservoirs
    Global Health
    Humans
    Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
    Insect Vectors
    Microcephaly
    Phylogeny
    Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
    Zika Virus
    Zika Virus Infection

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    28032327

    Citation

    Bordi, Licia, et al. "Emerging Zika Virus Infection: a Rapidly Evolving Situation." Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 972, 2017, pp. 61-86.
    Bordi L, Avsic-Zupanc T, Lalle E, et al. Emerging Zika Virus Infection: A Rapidly Evolving Situation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;972:61-86.
    Bordi, L., Avsic-Zupanc, T., Lalle, E., Vairo, F., Capobianchi, M. R., & da Costa Vasconcelos, P. F. (2017). Emerging Zika Virus Infection: A Rapidly Evolving Situation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 972, pp. 61-86. doi:10.1007/5584_2016_187.
    Bordi L, et al. Emerging Zika Virus Infection: a Rapidly Evolving Situation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;972:61-86. PubMed PMID: 28032327.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Emerging Zika Virus Infection: A Rapidly Evolving Situation. AU - Bordi,Licia, AU - Avsic-Zupanc,Tatjana, AU - Lalle,Eleonora, AU - Vairo,Francesco, AU - Capobianchi,Maria Rosaria, AU - da Costa Vasconcelos,Pedro Fernando, PY - 2016/12/30/pubmed PY - 2017/11/4/medline PY - 2016/12/30/entrez KW - Clinical Manifestation KW - Diagnosis KW - Pathogenetic Effects KW - Phylogenesis KW - Spread KW - Transmission KW - Zika Virus SP - 61 EP - 86 JF - Advances in experimental medicine and biology JO - Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. VL - 972 N2 - Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults. The primary mode of transmission of Zika virus between humans is through the bite of an infected female mosquito of the Aedes genus, but also sexual and blood transfusion transmission may occur. Moreover, a case of non-sexual spread from one person to another has been described, indicating that we still have more to learn about Zika transmission.Biological basis for pathogenetic effects are under investigation. Laboratory diagnosis is challenging since, so far, there are no "gold standard" diagnostic tools, and the low and short viremia in the acute phase, and together with the high cross-reactivity among the members of flavivirus genus are the most challenging aspects to be overcome. SN - 0065-2598 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28032327/Emerging_Zika_Virus_Infection:_A_Rapidly_Evolving_Situation_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2016_187 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -