Ultraviolet radiation and the skin: Photobiology and sunscreen photoprotection.J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Mar; 76(3S1):S100-S109.JA
The efficacy of sunscreens can be measured by different methods, involving in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo techniques. There is a need for a worldwide standardization of these methods to avoid misunderstanding and confusion among sunscreen users. The clinical benefits of sunscreens have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials that established the role of sunscreens in the prevention of actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinomas, nevi, and melanomas. Sunscreens also prevent photoimmunosuppression and signs of photoaging. Continued efforts in public education on the proper application of sunscreens and the practice of photoprotection in general are needed.