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Tobacco chewing, alcohol and nasal snuff in cancer of the gingiva in Kerala, India.
Br J Cancer 1989; 60(4):638-43BJ

Abstract

A case-control study of cancer of the gingiva was carried out in Kerala, Southern India, using 187 cases and 895 hospital-based controls. We investigated the effects on risk in males of pan (betel)-tobacco chewing, bidi and cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and taking snuff. In females only pan-tobacco chewing was investigated as very few females indulged in the other habits. Among males, significant positive associations with risk were observed for pan-tobacco chewing (P less than 0.001), bidi smoking (P less than 0.001) alcohol drinking (P less than 0.001) and snuff use (P less than 0.05). In females, pan-tobacco chewing had a similar predisposing effect (P less than 0.001). Daily frequency of pan-tobacco chewing was the strongest predictor of risk in males, with a relative risk of 15.07 associated with chewing ten or more quids per day. The corresponding relative risk among females was 13.69. In males a relative risk of 3.20 was associated with smoking more than 20 bidis per day, and relative risks of 2.62 and 3.90 were associated with regular use of alcohol and snuff respectively. Surprisingly high relative risks were observed in association with occasional use of pan-tobacco, bidi, cigarettes, alcohol and snuff. A stepwise logistic regression analysis yielded four predictors: pan-tobacco daily frequency, duration of bidi use, and alcohol and snuff use (regular versus never). There were also significantly elevated risks associated with occasional indulgence in these four habits. Total lifetime exposure was no better at predicting risk than daily frequency or duration of habits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

2803939

Citation

Sankaranarayanan, R, et al. "Tobacco Chewing, Alcohol and Nasal Snuff in Cancer of the Gingiva in Kerala, India." British Journal of Cancer, vol. 60, no. 4, 1989, pp. 638-43.
Sankaranarayanan R, Duffy SW, Padmakumary G, et al. Tobacco chewing, alcohol and nasal snuff in cancer of the gingiva in Kerala, India. Br J Cancer. 1989;60(4):638-43.
Sankaranarayanan, R., Duffy, S. W., Padmakumary, G., Day, N. E., & Padmanabhan, T. K. (1989). Tobacco chewing, alcohol and nasal snuff in cancer of the gingiva in Kerala, India. British Journal of Cancer, 60(4), pp. 638-43.
Sankaranarayanan R, et al. Tobacco Chewing, Alcohol and Nasal Snuff in Cancer of the Gingiva in Kerala, India. Br J Cancer. 1989;60(4):638-43. PubMed PMID: 2803939.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tobacco chewing, alcohol and nasal snuff in cancer of the gingiva in Kerala, India. AU - Sankaranarayanan,R, AU - Duffy,S W, AU - Padmakumary,G, AU - Day,N E, AU - Padmanabhan,T K, PY - 1989/10/1/pubmed PY - 1989/10/1/medline PY - 1989/10/1/entrez SP - 638 EP - 43 JF - British journal of cancer JO - Br. J. Cancer VL - 60 IS - 4 N2 - A case-control study of cancer of the gingiva was carried out in Kerala, Southern India, using 187 cases and 895 hospital-based controls. We investigated the effects on risk in males of pan (betel)-tobacco chewing, bidi and cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and taking snuff. In females only pan-tobacco chewing was investigated as very few females indulged in the other habits. Among males, significant positive associations with risk were observed for pan-tobacco chewing (P less than 0.001), bidi smoking (P less than 0.001) alcohol drinking (P less than 0.001) and snuff use (P less than 0.05). In females, pan-tobacco chewing had a similar predisposing effect (P less than 0.001). Daily frequency of pan-tobacco chewing was the strongest predictor of risk in males, with a relative risk of 15.07 associated with chewing ten or more quids per day. The corresponding relative risk among females was 13.69. In males a relative risk of 3.20 was associated with smoking more than 20 bidis per day, and relative risks of 2.62 and 3.90 were associated with regular use of alcohol and snuff respectively. Surprisingly high relative risks were observed in association with occasional use of pan-tobacco, bidi, cigarettes, alcohol and snuff. A stepwise logistic regression analysis yielded four predictors: pan-tobacco daily frequency, duration of bidi use, and alcohol and snuff use (regular versus never). There were also significantly elevated risks associated with occasional indulgence in these four habits. Total lifetime exposure was no better at predicting risk than daily frequency or duration of habits. SN - 0007-0920 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2803939/Tobacco_chewing_alcohol_and_nasal_snuff_in_cancer_of_the_gingiva_in_Kerala_India_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/2803939/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -