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No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(1):e0166651.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT). Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk]) and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent.

METHODS

T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions) and cortical CT as the dependent variable.

RESULTS

CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001), but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31). There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91). Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16), nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77).

CONCLUSION

The negative association between (familial risk for) psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban upbringing'.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. King's College London, King's Health Partners, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom.Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Institute for Mental Health Care Eindhoven (GGzE), Eindhoven, The Netherlands.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28045900

Citation

Frissen, Aleida, et al. "No Evidence of Association Between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder." PloS One, vol. 12, no. 1, 2017, pp. e0166651.
Frissen A, van Os J, Habets P, et al. No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(1):e0166651.
Frissen, A., van Os, J., Habets, P., Gronenschild, E., & Marcelis, M. (2017). No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder. PloS One, 12(1), e0166651. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166651
Frissen A, et al. No Evidence of Association Between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(1):e0166651. PubMed PMID: 28045900.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder. AU - Frissen,Aleida, AU - van Os,Jim, AU - Habets,Petra, AU - Gronenschild,Ed, AU - Marcelis,Machteld, AU - ,, Y1 - 2017/01/03/ PY - 2016/05/12/received PY - 2016/11/01/accepted PY - 2017/1/4/entrez PY - 2017/1/4/pubmed PY - 2017/8/22/medline SP - e0166651 EP - e0166651 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 12 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT). Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk]) and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent. METHODS: T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions) and cortical CT as the dependent variable. RESULTS: CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001), but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31). There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91). Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16), nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77). CONCLUSION: The negative association between (familial risk for) psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban upbringing'. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28045900/No_Evidence_of_Association_between_Childhood_Urban_Environment_and_Cortical_Thinning_in_Psychotic_Disorder_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166651 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -