[Dietary intake status of Chinese lactating women during the first month postpartum in 2013].Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016 Dec 06; 50(12):1043-1049.ZY
Objective: To assess the dietary intake status of Chinese lactating women during the first month postpartum. Methods: Data were extracted from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance, children aged 0-5 years and lactating women (2013). A total of 55 counties from 30 provinces in China (excluding the Tibet Autonomous Region) were selected using a multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. A group of 3 623 lactating women, at 1-6 months after delivery, were investigated in the study. The semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect information on frequencies and amounts of food consumed. Differences in food consumption rates and dietary intake in lactating women having different characteristics were analyzed and compared. Results: To eliminate abnormal values, 3 300 lactating women were included in the study. During the first month postpartum, food types with higher consumption rates were animal products (98.2%, 3 239) and vegetables (90.7%, 2 987), in addition to cereals (100%) and liquids (100%). The consumption rate of fruits was 67.4% (2 222) and the lowest consumption rate was for dairy products (38.3%, 1 262). The median intake of cereals, vegetables, fruits and animal products were 247.8, 150.0, 40.0 and 178.6 g/d, respectively. The daily median intake of dairy products and soybean/nut products was 0.0 g/d. Overall, the lactating women consumed 895.7 ml/d liquids. About 49.3% (1 627) of the subjects consumed less than the recommended intake for animal products in Chinese Dietary Guideline (2016). More than 50% of the lactating women consumed less than the recommended intakes for the other types of food, especially dairy, soybean/nut and liquids. The consumption rates for dairy products were 26.9%, 29.4%, 31.8% and 33.8% and those for soybean/nut products were 33.9% , 35.8% , 37.5% and 41.7% for the lactating women living in rural areas, with educations at junior high school level and below, with average family incomes under 15 000 yuan per capita in 2012 and who work as household mothers, respectively. These consumption rates for dairy and soybean/nuts were significantly lower than those in women living in cities (48.4%, 55.0%), with an education level of senior high school or above (48.8%, 55.7%), with average family income over 15 000 yuan per capita in 2012 (45.5%, 52.8%) and who work outside the home (43.7%, 49.4%). P values were <0.05 for all comparisons. Conclusion: The daily intake of all foods by lactating women during the first month postpartum was lower than the levels recommended in Chinese Dietary Guideline (2016). The consumption rate of dairy and soybean/nut products during this time period was low, especially for those living in rural areas, with education levels of junior high school and below, with average family incomes less than 15 000 yuan per capita in 2012 and who are housemothers.