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Protein intake and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older.
Osteoporos Int 2017; 28(4):1401-1411OI

Abstract

In this study, we followed postmenopausal women and men aged 50 and above for up to 32 years and found no evidence that higher protein intake increased the risk of hip fracture. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender.

INTRODUCTION

We examined the association between intakes of total and specific sources of protein and hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years of age. Our hypothesis was that a higher protein intake would not be associated with a higher risk of hip fractures.

METHODS

In this analysis, we followed 74,443 women in the Nurses' Health Study between 1980 and 2012 and 35,439 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study between 1986 and 2012. Health and lifestyle information and hip fractures were self-reported on biennial questionnaires. Protein was assessed approximately every 4 years with a food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks (RR) were computed for hip fracture by quintiles of total, animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders.

RESULTS

During follow-up, we ascertained 2156 incident hip fractures in women and 595 fractures in men. Among men, we observed significant inverse associations for each 10 g increase of total protein (RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-0.99) and animal protein (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.98) intakes. Total and animal proteins were not significantly associated with hip fractures in women. Both plant (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99 per 10 g) and dairy protein (RR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.97) were associated with significantly lower risks of hip fracture when results for men and women were combined. None of these associations were modified by BMI, smoking, physical activity, age, or calcium intake.

CONCLUSION

We found no evidence that higher protein intake increases risk of hip fracture in these Caucasian men and women. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, 300 The Fenway, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. fung@simmons.edu. Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. fung@simmons.edu.Department of Community Medicine, University of Oslo and Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28074249

Citation

Fung, T T., et al. "Protein Intake and Risk of Hip Fractures in Postmenopausal Women and Men Age 50 and Older." Osteoporosis International : a Journal Established as Result of Cooperation Between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, vol. 28, no. 4, 2017, pp. 1401-1411.
Fung TT, Meyer HE, Willett WC, et al. Protein intake and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28(4):1401-1411.
Fung, T. T., Meyer, H. E., Willett, W. C., & Feskanich, D. (2017). Protein intake and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older. Osteoporosis International : a Journal Established as Result of Cooperation Between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 28(4), pp. 1401-1411. doi:10.1007/s00198-016-3898-7.
Fung TT, et al. Protein Intake and Risk of Hip Fractures in Postmenopausal Women and Men Age 50 and Older. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28(4):1401-1411. PubMed PMID: 28074249.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Protein intake and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older. AU - Fung,T T, AU - Meyer,H E, AU - Willett,W C, AU - Feskanich,D, Y1 - 2017/01/10/ PY - 2016/09/20/received PY - 2016/12/27/accepted PY - 2017/1/12/pubmed PY - 2018/7/4/medline PY - 2017/1/12/entrez KW - Diet KW - Fractures KW - Hip KW - Nutrition KW - Protein SP - 1401 EP - 1411 JF - Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA JO - Osteoporos Int VL - 28 IS - 4 N2 - : In this study, we followed postmenopausal women and men aged 50 and above for up to 32 years and found no evidence that higher protein intake increased the risk of hip fracture. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender. INTRODUCTION: We examined the association between intakes of total and specific sources of protein and hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years of age. Our hypothesis was that a higher protein intake would not be associated with a higher risk of hip fractures. METHODS: In this analysis, we followed 74,443 women in the Nurses' Health Study between 1980 and 2012 and 35,439 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study between 1986 and 2012. Health and lifestyle information and hip fractures were self-reported on biennial questionnaires. Protein was assessed approximately every 4 years with a food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks (RR) were computed for hip fracture by quintiles of total, animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: During follow-up, we ascertained 2156 incident hip fractures in women and 595 fractures in men. Among men, we observed significant inverse associations for each 10 g increase of total protein (RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-0.99) and animal protein (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.98) intakes. Total and animal proteins were not significantly associated with hip fractures in women. Both plant (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99 per 10 g) and dairy protein (RR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.97) were associated with significantly lower risks of hip fracture when results for men and women were combined. None of these associations were modified by BMI, smoking, physical activity, age, or calcium intake. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that higher protein intake increases risk of hip fracture in these Caucasian men and women. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender. SN - 1433-2965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28074249/Protein_intake_and_risk_of_hip_fractures_in_postmenopausal_women_and_men_age_50_and_older_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-016-3898-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -