Trans-Fatty Acid-Stimulated Mammary Gland Growth in Ovariectomized Mice is Fatty Acid Type and Isomer Specific.Lipids. 2017 03; 52(3):223-233.L
We previously reported that the trans-18:2 fatty acid trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) stimulates mammary gland development independent of estrogen and its receptor. Given the negative consequences of dietary trans-fatty acids on various aspects of human health, we sought to establish whether other trans-fatty acids could similarly induce ovary-independent mammary gland growth in mice. Prepubertal BALB/cJ mice were ovariectomized at 21 days of age then were fed diets enriched with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA), or mixtures of trans-18:1 fatty acids supplied by partially hydrogenated sunflower, safflower, or linseed oil. The resultant mammary phenotype was evaluated 3 weeks later and compared to the growth response elicited by t10,c12-CLA, or the defined control diet. Whereas partially hydrogenated safflower oil increased mammary gland weight, none of the partially hydrogenated vegetable oils promoted mammary ductal growth. Similarly, the c9,t11-CLA supplemented diet was without effect on mammary development. Taken together, our data emphasize a unique effect of t10,c12-CLA in stimulating estrogen-independent mammary gland growth manifest as increased mammary ductal area and elongation that was not recapitulated by c9,t11-CLA or the partially hydrogenated vegetable oil diets.