Effects of direct current electric fields on lung cancer cell electrotaxis in a PMMA-based microfluidic device.Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017 Mar; 409(8):2163-2178.AB
Tumor metastasis is the primary cause of cancer death. Numerous studies have demonstrated the electrotactic responses of various cancer cell types, and suggested its potential implications in metastasis. In this study, we used a microfluidic device to emulate endogenous direct current electric field (dcEF) environment, and studied the electrotactic migration of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (H460, HCC827, H1299, and H1975) and the underlying mechanisms. These cell lines exhibited greatly different response in applied dcEFs (2-6 V/cm). While H460 cells (large cell carcinoma) showed slight migration toward cathode, H1299 cells (large cell carcinoma) showed increased motility and dcEF-dependent anodal migration with cell reorientation. H1975 cells (adenocarcinoma) showed dcEF-dependent cathodal migration with increased motility, and HCC827 cells (adenocarcinoma) responded positively in migration speed and reorientation but minimally in migrating directions to dcEF. Activation of MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways was found to be associated with the realignment and directed migration of lung cancer cells. In addition, both Ca2+ influx through activated stretch-activated calcium channels (SACCs) (but not voltage-gated calcium channels, VGCCs) and Ca2+ release from intracellular storage were involved in lung cancer cell electrotactic responses. The results demonstrated that the microfluidic device provided a stable and controllable microenvironment for cell electrotaxis study, and revealed that the electrotactic responses of lung cancer cells were heterogeneous and cell-type dependent, and multiple signals contributed to lung cancer cells electrotaxis.