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Common and specific genes and peripheral biomarkers in children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Elucidating the biological mechanisms involved in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been challenging. Relatively unexplored is the fact that these mechanisms can differ with age.

METHODS

We present an overview on the major differences between children and adults with ADHD, describing several studies from genomics to metabolomics performed in ADHD children and in adults (cADHD and aADHD, respectively). A systematic search (up until February 2016) was conducted.

RESULTS

From a PRISMA flow-chart, a total of 350 and 91 genomics and metabolomics studies were found to be elligible for cADHD and aADHD, respectively. For children, associations were found for genes belonging to dopaminergic (SLC6A3, DRD4 and MAOA) and neurodevelopmental (LPHN3 and DIRAS2) systems and OPRM1 (Yates corrected P = 0.016; OR = 2.27 95%CI: 1.15-4.47). Studies of adults have implicated circadian rhythms genes, HTR2A, MAOB and a more generic neurodevelopmental/neurite outgrowth network (BCHE, SNAP25, BAIAP2, NOS1/NO, KCNIP4 and SPOCK3; Yates corrected P = 0.007; OR = 3.30 95%CI: 1.33-8.29). In common among cADHD and aADHD, the most significant findings are for oxidative stress proteins (MAD, SOD, PON1, ARES, TOS, TAS and OSI), and, in the second level, DISC1, DBH, DDC, microRNA and adiponectin.

CONCLUSIONS

Through a convergent functional genomics, this review contributes to clarification of which genetic/biological mechanisms differ with age. The effects of some genes do not change throughout the lifetime, whereas others are linked to age-specific stages. Additional research and further studies are needed to generate firmer conclusions that might someday be useful for predicting the remission and persistence of the disorder. Despite the limitations, some of these genes/proteins could be potential useful biomarkers to discriminate cADHD from aADHD.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    a Genetics Unit , IRCCS "Centro S. Giovanni di Dio" Fatebenefratelli , Brescia , Italy.

    ,

    b Departments of Psychiatry and of Neuroscience and Physiology , SUNY Upstate Medical University , Syracuse , NY , USA ; Department of Biomedicine, K.G. Jebsen Centre for Research on Neuropsychiatric Disorders, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

    a Genetics Unit , IRCCS "Centro S. Giovanni di Dio" Fatebenefratelli , Brescia , Italy.

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
    Biomarkers
    Child
    Genomics
    Humans
    Metabolomics

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    28097908

    Citation

    Bonvicini, Cristian, et al. "Common and Specific Genes and Peripheral Biomarkers in Children and Adults With Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder." The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry : the Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 2, 2018, pp. 80-100.
    Bonvicini C, Faraone SV, Scassellati C. Common and specific genes and peripheral biomarkers in children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2018;19(2):80-100.
    Bonvicini, C., Faraone, S. V., & Scassellati, C. (2018). Common and specific genes and peripheral biomarkers in children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry : the Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry, 19(2), pp. 80-100. doi:10.1080/15622975.2017.1282175.
    Bonvicini C, Faraone SV, Scassellati C. Common and Specific Genes and Peripheral Biomarkers in Children and Adults With Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2018;19(2):80-100. PubMed PMID: 28097908.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Common and specific genes and peripheral biomarkers in children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. AU - Bonvicini,Cristian, AU - Faraone,Stephen V, AU - Scassellati,Catia, Y1 - 2017/02/24/ PY - 2017/1/18/pubmed PY - 2018/9/27/medline PY - 2017/1/19/entrez KW - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder KW - adults KW - children KW - genomics KW - metabolomics SP - 80 EP - 100 JF - The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry JO - World J. Biol. Psychiatry VL - 19 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Elucidating the biological mechanisms involved in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been challenging. Relatively unexplored is the fact that these mechanisms can differ with age. METHODS: We present an overview on the major differences between children and adults with ADHD, describing several studies from genomics to metabolomics performed in ADHD children and in adults (cADHD and aADHD, respectively). A systematic search (up until February 2016) was conducted. RESULTS: From a PRISMA flow-chart, a total of 350 and 91 genomics and metabolomics studies were found to be elligible for cADHD and aADHD, respectively. For children, associations were found for genes belonging to dopaminergic (SLC6A3, DRD4 and MAOA) and neurodevelopmental (LPHN3 and DIRAS2) systems and OPRM1 (Yates corrected P = 0.016; OR = 2.27 95%CI: 1.15-4.47). Studies of adults have implicated circadian rhythms genes, HTR2A, MAOB and a more generic neurodevelopmental/neurite outgrowth network (BCHE, SNAP25, BAIAP2, NOS1/NO, KCNIP4 and SPOCK3; Yates corrected P = 0.007; OR = 3.30 95%CI: 1.33-8.29). In common among cADHD and aADHD, the most significant findings are for oxidative stress proteins (MAD, SOD, PON1, ARES, TOS, TAS and OSI), and, in the second level, DISC1, DBH, DDC, microRNA and adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Through a convergent functional genomics, this review contributes to clarification of which genetic/biological mechanisms differ with age. The effects of some genes do not change throughout the lifetime, whereas others are linked to age-specific stages. Additional research and further studies are needed to generate firmer conclusions that might someday be useful for predicting the remission and persistence of the disorder. Despite the limitations, some of these genes/proteins could be potential useful biomarkers to discriminate cADHD from aADHD. SN - 1814-1412 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28097908/Common_and_specific_genes_and_peripheral_biomarkers_in_children_and_adults_with_attention_deficit/hyperactivity_disorder_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15622975.2017.1282175 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -