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Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 Mar; 234(5):877-888.P

Abstract

RATIONALE

Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption.

OBJECTIVES

This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults.

METHODS

Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., beverage A or B). The effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined.

RESULTS

A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study.

CONCLUSIONS

Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest that decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. marymsweeney@jhmi.edu.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. University of Connecticut Health Center, Calhoun Cardiology Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD, 20910, USA.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28108773

Citation

Sweeney, Mary M., et al. "Effects of Caffeine On Alcohol Reinforcement: Beverage Choice, Self-administration, and Subjective Ratings." Psychopharmacology, vol. 234, no. 5, 2017, pp. 877-888.
Sweeney MM, Meredith SE, Evatt DP, et al. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017;234(5):877-888.
Sweeney, M. M., Meredith, S. E., Evatt, D. P., & Griffiths, R. R. (2017). Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings. Psychopharmacology, 234(5), 877-888. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4528-6
Sweeney MM, et al. Effects of Caffeine On Alcohol Reinforcement: Beverage Choice, Self-administration, and Subjective Ratings. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017;234(5):877-888. PubMed PMID: 28108773.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings. AU - Sweeney,Mary M, AU - Meredith,Steven E, AU - Evatt,Daniel P, AU - Griffiths,Roland R, Y1 - 2017/01/20/ PY - 2016/07/26/received PY - 2017/01/03/accepted PY - 2017/1/22/pubmed PY - 2017/12/1/medline PY - 2017/1/22/entrez KW - Alcohol KW - Alcohol reinforcement KW - AmED KW - Caffeine KW - Caffeine and alcohol KW - Energy drinks KW - Human KW - Sedative effects KW - Self-administration KW - Stimulant effects SP - 877 EP - 888 JF - Psychopharmacology JO - Psychopharmacology (Berl) VL - 234 IS - 5 N2 - RATIONALE: Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. OBJECTIVES: This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. METHODS: Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., beverage A or B). The effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. RESULTS: A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. CONCLUSIONS: Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest that decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine. SN - 1432-2072 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28108773/Effects_of_caffeine_on_alcohol_reinforcement:_beverage_choice_self_administration_and_subjective_ratings_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4528-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -