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General distress is more important than PTSD's cognition and mood alterations factor in accounting for PTSD and depression's comorbidity.
J Affect Disord 2017; 211:118-123JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid and exhibit strong correlations with each other at both the symptom level and latent factor level. Various theories have attempted to explain this relationship. Results have been inconsistent regarding whether PTSD's negative alterations in cognition and mood factor (NACM) is significantly more related to depression, in contrast to other factors of PTSD.

METHODS

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to attempt to address the relationships between PTSD and MDD in a large sample of trauma-exposed combat veterans from the Ohio National Guard as part of a larger longitudinal study.

RESULTS

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a bifactor model of PTSD symptoms, testing relations between PTSD's factors and a latent depressive factor. After partitioning out the common variance into the bifactor, we found that in contrast to other PTSD factors, PTSD's NACM factor was not significantly more related to depression. Instead, only the general bifactor predicted depressive symptoms.

LIMITATIONS

The limitations of the present study include the following: the specific measures of PTSD and MDD used were based on self-report, and the sample consisted of non-clinical, non-treatment seeking veterans.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study suggests that the high rate of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder is more related to underlying general distress or negative affectivity than the symptom categories of the PTSD diagnostic criteria.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, United States.Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, United States; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, United States. Electronic address: contact@jon-elhai.com.Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, United States.Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, United States.Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, United States.Department of Epidemiology, Boston University, United States.Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University, United States; University Hospitals Case Medical Center, United States.Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University, United States; University Hospitals Case Medical Center, United States.VA Ann Arbor Health Care System, United States; Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, United States.School of Public Health, Boston University, United States.Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28110158

Citation

Byllesby, Brianna M., et al. "General Distress Is More Important Than PTSD's Cognition and Mood Alterations Factor in Accounting for PTSD and Depression's Comorbidity." Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 211, 2017, pp. 118-123.
Byllesby BM, Elhai JD, Tamburrino M, et al. General distress is more important than PTSD's cognition and mood alterations factor in accounting for PTSD and depression's comorbidity. J Affect Disord. 2017;211:118-123.
Byllesby, B. M., Elhai, J. D., Tamburrino, M., Fine, T. H., Cohen, G., Sampson, L., ... Calabrese, J. R. (2017). General distress is more important than PTSD's cognition and mood alterations factor in accounting for PTSD and depression's comorbidity. Journal of Affective Disorders, 211, pp. 118-123. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2017.01.014.
Byllesby BM, et al. General Distress Is More Important Than PTSD's Cognition and Mood Alterations Factor in Accounting for PTSD and Depression's Comorbidity. J Affect Disord. 2017 Mar 15;211:118-123. PubMed PMID: 28110158.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - General distress is more important than PTSD's cognition and mood alterations factor in accounting for PTSD and depression's comorbidity. AU - Byllesby,Brianna M, AU - Elhai,Jon D, AU - Tamburrino,Marijo, AU - Fine,Thomas H, AU - Cohen,Gregory, AU - Sampson,Laura, AU - Shirley,Edwin, AU - Chan,Philip K, AU - Liberzon,Israel, AU - Galea,Sandro, AU - Calabrese,Joseph R, Y1 - 2017/01/15/ PY - 2016/10/18/received PY - 2017/01/14/accepted PY - 2017/1/23/pubmed PY - 2017/11/29/medline PY - 2017/1/23/entrez KW - Depression KW - Factor analysis KW - Posttraumatic stress disorder SP - 118 EP - 123 JF - Journal of affective disorders JO - J Affect Disord VL - 211 N2 - BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid and exhibit strong correlations with each other at both the symptom level and latent factor level. Various theories have attempted to explain this relationship. Results have been inconsistent regarding whether PTSD's negative alterations in cognition and mood factor (NACM) is significantly more related to depression, in contrast to other factors of PTSD. METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to attempt to address the relationships between PTSD and MDD in a large sample of trauma-exposed combat veterans from the Ohio National Guard as part of a larger longitudinal study. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a bifactor model of PTSD symptoms, testing relations between PTSD's factors and a latent depressive factor. After partitioning out the common variance into the bifactor, we found that in contrast to other PTSD factors, PTSD's NACM factor was not significantly more related to depression. Instead, only the general bifactor predicted depressive symptoms. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of the present study include the following: the specific measures of PTSD and MDD used were based on self-report, and the sample consisted of non-clinical, non-treatment seeking veterans. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that the high rate of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder is more related to underlying general distress or negative affectivity than the symptom categories of the PTSD diagnostic criteria. SN - 1573-2517 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28110158/General_distress_is_more_important_than_PTSD's_cognition_and_mood_alterations_factor_in_accounting_for_PTSD_and_depression's_comorbidity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-0327(16)31936-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -