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Requirements of n-3 very long-chain PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): effects of different dietary levels of EPA and DHA on fish performance and tissue composition and integrity.
Br J Nutr. 2017 01; 117(1):30-47.BJ

Abstract

Farmed salmon feeds have changed from purely marine-based diets with high levels of EPA and DHA in the 1990s to the current 70 % plant-based diets with low levels of these fatty acids (FA). The aim of this study was to establish the impacts of low dietary EPA and DHA levels on performance and tissue integrity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Atlantic salmon (50 g) in seawater were fed fourteen experimental diets, containing five levels (0, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 and 2·0 %) of EPA, DHA or a 1:1 EPA+DHA plus control close to a commercial diet, to a final weight of 400 g. Lack of EPA and DHA did not influence mortality, but the n-3-deficient group exhibited moderately slower growth than those fed levels above 0·5 %. The heart and brain conserved EPA and DHA levels better than skeletal muscle, liver, skin and intestine. Decreased EPA and DHA favoured deposition of pro-inflammatory 20 : 4n-6 and 20 : 3n-6 FA in membrane phospholipids in all tissues. When DHA was excluded from diets, 18 : 3n-3 and EPA were to a large extent converted to DHA. Liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle morphology was normal in all groups, with the exception of cytoplasm packed with large or foamy vacuoles and sometimes swollen enterocytes of intestine in both deficient and EPA groups. DHA supplementation supported normal intestinal structure, and 2·0 % EPA+DHA alleviated deficiency symptoms. Thus, EPA and DHA dietary requirements cannot be based exclusively on growth; tissue integrity and fish health also need to be considered.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Nofima (Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Research),PO Box 210,N-1432 Ås,Norway.3Nofima,N-6600 Sunndalsøra,Norway.3Nofima,N-6600 Sunndalsøra,Norway.4BioMar AS,N-7484 Trondheim,Norway.1Nofima (Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Research),PO Box 210,N-1432 Ås,Norway.5Nofima,Kjerreidviken 16,N-5141 Fyllingsdalen,Norway.3Nofima,N-6600 Sunndalsøra,Norway.1Nofima (Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Research),PO Box 210,N-1432 Ås,Norway.6AVS Chile S.A.,Imperial 0655-4A,Puerto Varas,Chile.1Nofima (Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Research),PO Box 210,N-1432 Ås,Norway.

Pub Type(s)

Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28112067

Citation

Bou, Marta, et al. "Requirements of N-3 Very Long-chain PUFA in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar L): Effects of Different Dietary Levels of EPA and DHA On Fish Performance and Tissue Composition and Integrity." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 117, no. 1, 2017, pp. 30-47.
Bou M, Berge GM, Baeverfjord G, et al. Requirements of n-3 very long-chain PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): effects of different dietary levels of EPA and DHA on fish performance and tissue composition and integrity. Br J Nutr. 2017;117(1):30-47.
Bou, M., Berge, G. M., Baeverfjord, G., Sigholt, T., Østbye, T. K., Romarheim, O. H., Hatlen, B., Leeuwis, R., Venegas, C., & Ruyter, B. (2017). Requirements of n-3 very long-chain PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): effects of different dietary levels of EPA and DHA on fish performance and tissue composition and integrity. The British Journal of Nutrition, 117(1), 30-47. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516004396
Bou M, et al. Requirements of N-3 Very Long-chain PUFA in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar L): Effects of Different Dietary Levels of EPA and DHA On Fish Performance and Tissue Composition and Integrity. Br J Nutr. 2017;117(1):30-47. PubMed PMID: 28112067.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Requirements of n-3 very long-chain PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): effects of different dietary levels of EPA and DHA on fish performance and tissue composition and integrity. AU - Bou,Marta, AU - Berge,Gerd M, AU - Baeverfjord,Grete, AU - Sigholt,Trygve, AU - Østbye,Tone-Kari, AU - Romarheim,Odd Helge, AU - Hatlen,Bjarne, AU - Leeuwis,Robin, AU - Venegas,Claudia, AU - Ruyter,Bente, Y1 - 2017/01/23/ PY - 2017/1/24/pubmed PY - 2017/6/27/medline PY - 2017/1/24/entrez KW - n-3 VLC-PUFA n-3 very-long-chain PUFA KW - DPA docosapentaenoic acid KW - EFA essential fatty acid KW - FA fatty acid KW - NL neutral lipids KW - Aquafeed KW - DHA KW - EPA KW - Essential fatty acids KW - Fat KW - Phospholipids SP - 30 EP - 47 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 117 IS - 1 N2 - Farmed salmon feeds have changed from purely marine-based diets with high levels of EPA and DHA in the 1990s to the current 70 % plant-based diets with low levels of these fatty acids (FA). The aim of this study was to establish the impacts of low dietary EPA and DHA levels on performance and tissue integrity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Atlantic salmon (50 g) in seawater were fed fourteen experimental diets, containing five levels (0, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 and 2·0 %) of EPA, DHA or a 1:1 EPA+DHA plus control close to a commercial diet, to a final weight of 400 g. Lack of EPA and DHA did not influence mortality, but the n-3-deficient group exhibited moderately slower growth than those fed levels above 0·5 %. The heart and brain conserved EPA and DHA levels better than skeletal muscle, liver, skin and intestine. Decreased EPA and DHA favoured deposition of pro-inflammatory 20 : 4n-6 and 20 : 3n-6 FA in membrane phospholipids in all tissues. When DHA was excluded from diets, 18 : 3n-3 and EPA were to a large extent converted to DHA. Liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle morphology was normal in all groups, with the exception of cytoplasm packed with large or foamy vacuoles and sometimes swollen enterocytes of intestine in both deficient and EPA groups. DHA supplementation supported normal intestinal structure, and 2·0 % EPA+DHA alleviated deficiency symptoms. Thus, EPA and DHA dietary requirements cannot be based exclusively on growth; tissue integrity and fish health also need to be considered. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28112067/Requirements_of_n_3_very_long_chain_PUFA_in_Atlantic_salmon__Salmo_salar_L_:_effects_of_different_dietary_levels_of_EPA_and_DHA_on_fish_performance_and_tissue_composition_and_integrity_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114516004396/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -