Development and validation of the Salzburg COPD-screening questionnaire (SCSQ): a questionnaire development and validation study.NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2017 01 26; 27(1):4.NP
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence rates are still high. However, the majority of subjects are not diagnosed. Strategies have to be implemented to overcome the problem of under-diagnosis. Questionnaires could be used to pre-select subjects for spirometry and thereby help reducing under-diagnosis. We report a brief, simple, self-administrable and validated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease questionnaire to increase the pre-test probability for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosis in subjects undergoing confirmatory spirometry. In 2005, we completed the Austrian Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease-study in 1258 subjects aged >40 years. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed, and non-reversible airflow limitation defined by FEV1/FVC ratio below the lower limit of normal. Questions from the Salzburg chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening-questionnaire were selected using a logistic regression model, and risk scores were based on regression-coefficients. A training sub-sample (n = 800) was used to create the score, and a test sub-sample (n = 458) was used to test it. In 2008, an external validation study was done, using the same protocol in 775 patients from primary care. The Salzburg chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening questionnaire was composed of items related to "breathing problems", "wheeze", "cough", "limitation of physical activity", and "smoking". At the >=2 points cut-off of the Salzburg chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening questionnaire, sensitivity was 69.1% [95%CI: 56.6%; 79.5%], specificity 60.0% [95%CI: 54.9%; 64.9%], the positive predictive value 23.2% [95%CI: 17.7%; 29.7%] and the negative predictive value 91.8% [95%CI: 87.5%; 95.7%] to detect post bronchodilator airflow limitation. The external validation study in primary care confirmed these findings. The Salzburg chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening questionnaire was derived from the highly standardized Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study. This validated and easy to use questionnaire can help to increase the efficiency of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease case-finding.
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRE-SCREENING POTENTIAL SUFFERERS: Scientists in Austria have developed a brief, simple questionnaire to identify patients likely to have early-stage chronic lung disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is notoriously difficult to diagnose, and the condition often causes irreversible lung damage before it is identified. Finding a simple, cost-effective method of pre-screening patients with suspected early-stage COPD could potentially improve treatment responses and limit the burden of extensive lung function ('spirometry') tests on health services. Gertraud Weiss at Paracelsus Medical University, Austria, and co-workers have developed and validated an easy-to-use, self-administered questionnaire that could prove effective for pre-screening patients. The team trialed the five-point Salzburg COPD-screening questionnaire on 1258 patients. Patients scoring 2 points or above on the questionnaire underwent spirometry tests. The questionnaire seems to provide a sensitive and cost-effective way of pre-selecting patients for spirometry referral.