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Evaluation of divided attention psychophysical task performance and effects on pupil sizes following smoked, vaporized and oral cannabis administration.
J Appl Toxicol. 2017 08; 37(8):922-932.JA

Abstract

Establishing science-based driving per se blood Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) limits is challenging, in part because of prolonged THC detection in chronic, frequent users. Therefore, documenting observable signs of impairment is important for driving under the influence of drugs. We evaluated frequent and occasional cannabis smokers' performance on the modified Romberg balance, one leg stand (OLS), and walk and turn (WAT) tasks, and pupil size effects following controlled placebo (0.001% THC), smoked, vaporized and oral (6.9% [~50.4 mg] THC) cannabis administration. Significant effects following inhaled doses were not observed due to delayed tasks administration 1.5 and 3.5 h post-dose, but significant impairment was observed after oral dosing (blood THC concentrations peaked 1.5-3.5 h post-dose). Occasional smokers' odds of exhibiting ≥2 clues on the OLS or WAT following oral dosing were 6.4 (95% CI 2.3-18.4) times higher than after placebo, with THC and 11-hydroxy-THC blood concentrations individually producing odds ratios of 1.3 (1.1-1.5) and 1.5 (1.3-1.8) for impairment in these tasks, respectively. Pupil sizes after oral dosing under the direct lighting condition were significantly larger than after placebo by mean (SE, 95% CI) 0.4 (0.1, 0.2-0.6) mm at 1.5 h and 0.5 (0.2, 0.2-0.8) mm at 3.5 h among all participants. Oral cannabis administration impaired occasional cannabis users' performance on the OLS and WAT tasks compared to placebo, supporting other reports showing these tasks are sensitive to cannabis-related impairment. Occasional smokers' impairment was related to blood THC and 11-hydroxy-THC concentrations. These are important public health policy findings as consumption of edible cannabis products increases. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Department of Forensic Science, College of Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.Maryland Drug Recognition Expert Coordinator, Maryland State Police, Pikesville, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28138971

Citation

Newmeyer, Matthew N., et al. "Evaluation of Divided Attention Psychophysical Task Performance and Effects On Pupil Sizes Following Smoked, Vaporized and Oral Cannabis Administration." Journal of Applied Toxicology : JAT, vol. 37, no. 8, 2017, pp. 922-932.
Newmeyer MN, Swortwood MJ, Taylor ME, et al. Evaluation of divided attention psychophysical task performance and effects on pupil sizes following smoked, vaporized and oral cannabis administration. J Appl Toxicol. 2017;37(8):922-932.
Newmeyer, M. N., Swortwood, M. J., Taylor, M. E., Abulseoud, O. A., Woodward, T. H., & Huestis, M. A. (2017). Evaluation of divided attention psychophysical task performance and effects on pupil sizes following smoked, vaporized and oral cannabis administration. Journal of Applied Toxicology : JAT, 37(8), 922-932. https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.3440
Newmeyer MN, et al. Evaluation of Divided Attention Psychophysical Task Performance and Effects On Pupil Sizes Following Smoked, Vaporized and Oral Cannabis Administration. J Appl Toxicol. 2017;37(8):922-932. PubMed PMID: 28138971.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of divided attention psychophysical task performance and effects on pupil sizes following smoked, vaporized and oral cannabis administration. AU - Newmeyer,Matthew N, AU - Swortwood,Madeleine J, AU - Taylor,Megan E, AU - Abulseoud,Osama A, AU - Woodward,Thomas H, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2017/01/31/ PY - 2016/11/21/received PY - 2016/12/09/revised PY - 2016/12/16/accepted PY - 2017/2/1/pubmed PY - 2018/3/27/medline PY - 2017/2/1/entrez KW - Drug Evaluation and Classification Program KW - cannabis KW - edibles KW - modified Romberg balance KW - one leg stand KW - performance KW - pupil size KW - walk and turn SP - 922 EP - 932 JF - Journal of applied toxicology : JAT JO - J Appl Toxicol VL - 37 IS - 8 N2 - Establishing science-based driving per se blood Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) limits is challenging, in part because of prolonged THC detection in chronic, frequent users. Therefore, documenting observable signs of impairment is important for driving under the influence of drugs. We evaluated frequent and occasional cannabis smokers' performance on the modified Romberg balance, one leg stand (OLS), and walk and turn (WAT) tasks, and pupil size effects following controlled placebo (0.001% THC), smoked, vaporized and oral (6.9% [~50.4 mg] THC) cannabis administration. Significant effects following inhaled doses were not observed due to delayed tasks administration 1.5 and 3.5 h post-dose, but significant impairment was observed after oral dosing (blood THC concentrations peaked 1.5-3.5 h post-dose). Occasional smokers' odds of exhibiting ≥2 clues on the OLS or WAT following oral dosing were 6.4 (95% CI 2.3-18.4) times higher than after placebo, with THC and 11-hydroxy-THC blood concentrations individually producing odds ratios of 1.3 (1.1-1.5) and 1.5 (1.3-1.8) for impairment in these tasks, respectively. Pupil sizes after oral dosing under the direct lighting condition were significantly larger than after placebo by mean (SE, 95% CI) 0.4 (0.1, 0.2-0.6) mm at 1.5 h and 0.5 (0.2, 0.2-0.8) mm at 3.5 h among all participants. Oral cannabis administration impaired occasional cannabis users' performance on the OLS and WAT tasks compared to placebo, supporting other reports showing these tasks are sensitive to cannabis-related impairment. Occasional smokers' impairment was related to blood THC and 11-hydroxy-THC concentrations. These are important public health policy findings as consumption of edible cannabis products increases. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. SN - 1099-1263 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28138971/Evaluation_of_divided_attention_psychophysical_task_performance_and_effects_on_pupil_sizes_following_smoked_vaporized_and_oral_cannabis_administration_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.3440 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -