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The prevalence, serogroup distribution and risk factors of meningococcal carriage in adolescents and young adults in Turkey.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 05 04; 13(5):1182-1189.HV

Abstract

The serogroup epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), which varies considerably by geographic region and immunization schedule, changes continuously. Meningococcal carriage data are crucial for assessing IMD epidemiology and designing f potential vaccination strategies. Meningococcal seroepidemiology in Turkey differs from that in other countries: serogroups W and B are the predominant strains for IMD during childhood, whereas no serogroup C cases were identified over the last 10 y and no adolescent peak for IMD was found. There is a lack of data on meningococcal carriage that represents the whole population. The aims of this multicenter study (12 cities in Turkey) were to evaluate the prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis carriage, the serogroup distribution and the related risk factors (educational status, living in a dormitory or student house, being a household contact with Hajj pilgrims, smoking, completion of military service, attending bars/clubs) in 1518 adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 y. The presence of N. meningitidis DNA was tested, and a serogroup analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction. The overall meningococcal carriage rate was 6.3% (n = 96) in the study population. A serogroup distribution of the 96 N. meningitidis strains isolated from the nasopharyngeal specimens revealed serogroup A in 5 specimens (5.2%), serogroup B in 9 specimens (9.4%), serogroup W in 64 specimens (66.6%), and serogroup Y in 4 specimens (4.2%); 14 were classified as non-grouped (14.4%). No serogroup C cases were detected. The nasopharyngeal meningococcal carriage rate was 5% in the 10-14 age group, 6.4% in the 15-17 age-group, and 4.7% in the 18-20 age group; the highest carriage rate was found in the 21-24 age group (9.1%), which was significantly higher than those of the other age groups (p < 0.05). The highest carriage rate was found in 17-year-old adolescents (11%). The carriage rate was higher among the participants who had had close contact with Hajj/Umrah pilgrims (p < 0.01) or a history of upper respiratory tract infections over the past 3 months (p < 0.05). The nasopharyngeal carriage rate was 6.3% among adolescents and young adults in Turkey and was similar to the recent rates observed in the same age groups in other countries. The most prevalent serogroup was W, and no serogroup C cases were found. In conclusion, the present study found that meningococcal carriage reaches its peak level by age 17, the highest carriage rate was found in 21 - to 24 - year-olds and the majority of the carriage cases were due to serogroup W. Adolescents and young adult carriers seem to be a potential reservoir for the disease, and further immunization strategies, including adolescent immunization, may play a role in the control of IMD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine , Department of Pediatrics , Eskisehir , Turkey.a Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine , Department of Pediatrics , Eskisehir , Turkey.b Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine , Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Ankara , Turkey.c Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Istanbul , Turkey.d Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Istanbul , Turkey.d Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Istanbul , Turkey.e Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Izmir , Turkey.f Muratpasa 1st Caybasi Family Practice Center , Antalya , Turkey.g Sanlıurfa Children Hospital , Sanliurfa , Turkey.h Uludag University Faculty of Medicine , Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Bursa , Turkey.i Mersin University Faculty of Medicine , Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Mersin , Turkey.j Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine , Department of Social Pediatrics , Kayseri , Turkey.k Konya Training and Research Hospital, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Konya , Turkey.l Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine , Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Samsun , Turkey.m Erzurum Training and Research Hospital, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Erzurum , Turkey.a Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine , Department of Pediatrics , Eskisehir , Turkey.a Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine , Department of Pediatrics , Eskisehir , Turkey.b Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine , Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Ankara , Turkey.b Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine , Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Ankara , Turkey.b Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine , Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Ankara , Turkey.e Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Izmir , Turkey.k Konya Training and Research Hospital, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Konya , Turkey.i Mersin University Faculty of Medicine , Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Mersin , Turkey.h Uludag University Faculty of Medicine , Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit , Bursa , Turkey.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28140784

Citation

Tekin, Rahmi Tuna, et al. "The Prevalence, Serogroup Distribution and Risk Factors of Meningococcal Carriage in Adolescents and Young Adults in Turkey." Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol. 13, no. 5, 2017, pp. 1182-1189.
Tekin RT, Dinleyici EC, Ceyhan M, et al. The prevalence, serogroup distribution and risk factors of meningococcal carriage in adolescents and young adults in Turkey. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017;13(5):1182-1189.
Tekin, R. T., Dinleyici, E. C., Ceyhan, M., Karbuz, A., Salman, N., Sutçu, M., Kurugol, Z., Balliel, Y., Celik, M., Hacimustafaoglu, M., Kuyucu, N., Kondolot, M., Sensoy, G., Metin, O., Kara, S. S., Dinleyici, M., Kılıç, O., Bayhan, C., Gurbuz, V., ... Celebi, S. (2017). The prevalence, serogroup distribution and risk factors of meningococcal carriage in adolescents and young adults in Turkey. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 13(5), 1182-1189. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2016.1268304
Tekin RT, et al. The Prevalence, Serogroup Distribution and Risk Factors of Meningococcal Carriage in Adolescents and Young Adults in Turkey. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 05 4;13(5):1182-1189. PubMed PMID: 28140784.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The prevalence, serogroup distribution and risk factors of meningococcal carriage in adolescents and young adults in Turkey. AU - Tekin,Rahmi Tuna, AU - Dinleyici,Ener Cagri, AU - Ceyhan,Mehmet, AU - Karbuz,Adem, AU - Salman,Nuran, AU - Sutçu,Murat, AU - Kurugol,Zafer, AU - Balliel,Yasemin, AU - Celik,Melda, AU - Hacimustafaoglu,Mustafa, AU - Kuyucu,Necdet, AU - Kondolot,Meda, AU - Sensoy,Gülnar, AU - Metin,Ozge, AU - Kara,Soner Sertan, AU - Dinleyici,Meltem, AU - Kılıç,Omer, AU - Bayhan,Cihangul, AU - Gurbuz,Venhar, AU - Aycan,Emre, AU - Memedova,Aygun, AU - Karli,Arzu, AU - Bozlu,Gulçin, AU - Celebi,Solmaz, Y1 - 2017/01/31/ PY - 2017/2/1/pubmed PY - 2018/2/8/medline PY - 2017/2/1/entrez KW - Neisseria meningitidis KW - Turkey KW - adolescents KW - meningococcal vaccines KW - meningococci KW - nasopharyngeal colonization SP - 1182 EP - 1189 JF - Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics JO - Hum Vaccin Immunother VL - 13 IS - 5 N2 - The serogroup epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), which varies considerably by geographic region and immunization schedule, changes continuously. Meningococcal carriage data are crucial for assessing IMD epidemiology and designing f potential vaccination strategies. Meningococcal seroepidemiology in Turkey differs from that in other countries: serogroups W and B are the predominant strains for IMD during childhood, whereas no serogroup C cases were identified over the last 10 y and no adolescent peak for IMD was found. There is a lack of data on meningococcal carriage that represents the whole population. The aims of this multicenter study (12 cities in Turkey) were to evaluate the prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis carriage, the serogroup distribution and the related risk factors (educational status, living in a dormitory or student house, being a household contact with Hajj pilgrims, smoking, completion of military service, attending bars/clubs) in 1518 adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 y. The presence of N. meningitidis DNA was tested, and a serogroup analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction. The overall meningococcal carriage rate was 6.3% (n = 96) in the study population. A serogroup distribution of the 96 N. meningitidis strains isolated from the nasopharyngeal specimens revealed serogroup A in 5 specimens (5.2%), serogroup B in 9 specimens (9.4%), serogroup W in 64 specimens (66.6%), and serogroup Y in 4 specimens (4.2%); 14 were classified as non-grouped (14.4%). No serogroup C cases were detected. The nasopharyngeal meningococcal carriage rate was 5% in the 10-14 age group, 6.4% in the 15-17 age-group, and 4.7% in the 18-20 age group; the highest carriage rate was found in the 21-24 age group (9.1%), which was significantly higher than those of the other age groups (p < 0.05). The highest carriage rate was found in 17-year-old adolescents (11%). The carriage rate was higher among the participants who had had close contact with Hajj/Umrah pilgrims (p < 0.01) or a history of upper respiratory tract infections over the past 3 months (p < 0.05). The nasopharyngeal carriage rate was 6.3% among adolescents and young adults in Turkey and was similar to the recent rates observed in the same age groups in other countries. The most prevalent serogroup was W, and no serogroup C cases were found. In conclusion, the present study found that meningococcal carriage reaches its peak level by age 17, the highest carriage rate was found in 21 - to 24 - year-olds and the majority of the carriage cases were due to serogroup W. Adolescents and young adult carriers seem to be a potential reservoir for the disease, and further immunization strategies, including adolescent immunization, may play a role in the control of IMD. SN - 2164-554X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28140784/The_prevalence_serogroup_distribution_and_risk_factors_of_meningococcal_carriage_in_adolescents_and_young_adults_in_Turkey_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2016.1268304 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -