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Concussion in the international ice hockey World Championships and Olympic Winter Games between 2006 and 2015.
Br J Sports Med 2017; 51(4):244-252BJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Concussions in sports are a growing concern. This study describes the incidence, injury characteristics and time trends of concussions in international ice hockey.

METHODS

All concussions in the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) World Championships (WC) and Olympic Winter Games were analysed over 9 ice hockey seasons between 2006 and 2015 using a standardised injury reporting system and diagnoses made by the team physicians.

RESULTS

A total of 3293 games were played (169 tournaments, 1212 teams, 26 130 players) comprising 142 244 athletic game exposures. The average injury rate (IR) for concussion was 1.1 per 1000 ice hockey player-games for all IIHF WC tournaments. The IR was the highest in the men's WC A-pool tournaments and Olympic Games (IR 1.6). However, the annual IR for concussion in the men's tournaments has been lower than that in the World Junior tournaments since 2012. When a concussion occurred with contact to a flexible board, the IR was 0.2 per 1000 player games. In contrast, the IR was 1.1, if the board and glass were traditional (for the latter, RR 6.44 (95% CI 1.50 to 27.61)). In the men's tournaments, the trend of concussions caused by illegal hits decreased over the study period. After the 4th Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport was published (2013), none of the concussed players in the men's WC returned to play on the day of injury.

CONCLUSIONS

The annual risk of concussion in the men's WC has decreased during the study period. This was most likely due to a reduction in illegal hits. The risk of concussion was significantly lower if games were played on rinks with flexible boards and glass. Rink modifications, improved education and strict rule enforcement should be considered by policymakers in international ice hockey.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Medisport Ltd, Tampere, Finland.Tampere Research Center of Sports Medicine, UKK Institute, Tampere, Finland.Tampere Research Center of Sports Medicine, UKK Institute, Tampere, Finland.Department of Orthopedics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.Department of Neurosurgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.Injury and Osteoporosis Research Center, UKK Institute, Tampere, Finland.Ottawa Sport Medicine Centre, Ottawa, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28148512

Citation

Tuominen, Markku, et al. "Concussion in the International Ice Hockey World Championships and Olympic Winter Games Between 2006 and 2015." British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 51, no. 4, 2017, pp. 244-252.
Tuominen M, Hänninen T, Parkkari J, et al. Concussion in the international ice hockey World Championships and Olympic Winter Games between 2006 and 2015. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51(4):244-252.
Tuominen, M., Hänninen, T., Parkkari, J., Stuart, M. J., Luoto, T., Kannus, P., & Aubry, M. (2017). Concussion in the international ice hockey World Championships and Olympic Winter Games between 2006 and 2015. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(4), pp. 244-252. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-097119.
Tuominen M, et al. Concussion in the International Ice Hockey World Championships and Olympic Winter Games Between 2006 and 2015. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51(4):244-252. PubMed PMID: 28148512.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Concussion in the international ice hockey World Championships and Olympic Winter Games between 2006 and 2015. AU - Tuominen,Markku, AU - Hänninen,Timo, AU - Parkkari,Jari, AU - Stuart,Michael J, AU - Luoto,Teemu, AU - Kannus,Pekka, AU - Aubry,Mark, PY - 2016/12/24/accepted PY - 2017/2/3/entrez PY - 2017/2/6/pubmed PY - 2017/4/7/medline KW - Concussion KW - Epidemiology KW - Head KW - Ice hockey KW - Injury prevention SP - 244 EP - 252 JF - British journal of sports medicine JO - Br J Sports Med VL - 51 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Concussions in sports are a growing concern. This study describes the incidence, injury characteristics and time trends of concussions in international ice hockey. METHODS: All concussions in the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) World Championships (WC) and Olympic Winter Games were analysed over 9 ice hockey seasons between 2006 and 2015 using a standardised injury reporting system and diagnoses made by the team physicians. RESULTS: A total of 3293 games were played (169 tournaments, 1212 teams, 26 130 players) comprising 142 244 athletic game exposures. The average injury rate (IR) for concussion was 1.1 per 1000 ice hockey player-games for all IIHF WC tournaments. The IR was the highest in the men's WC A-pool tournaments and Olympic Games (IR 1.6). However, the annual IR for concussion in the men's tournaments has been lower than that in the World Junior tournaments since 2012. When a concussion occurred with contact to a flexible board, the IR was 0.2 per 1000 player games. In contrast, the IR was 1.1, if the board and glass were traditional (for the latter, RR 6.44 (95% CI 1.50 to 27.61)). In the men's tournaments, the trend of concussions caused by illegal hits decreased over the study period. After the 4th Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport was published (2013), none of the concussed players in the men's WC returned to play on the day of injury. CONCLUSIONS: The annual risk of concussion in the men's WC has decreased during the study period. This was most likely due to a reduction in illegal hits. The risk of concussion was significantly lower if games were played on rinks with flexible boards and glass. Rink modifications, improved education and strict rule enforcement should be considered by policymakers in international ice hockey. SN - 1473-0480 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28148512/Concussion_in_the_international_ice_hockey_World_Championships_and_Olympic_Winter_Games_between_2006_and_2015_ L2 - http://bjsm.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=28148512 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -