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Omega-3 Fatty Acid Plasma Levels Before and After Supplementation: Correlations with Mood and Clinical Outcomes in the Omega-3 and Therapy Studies.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2017 Apr; 27(3):223-233.JC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine fatty acid profiles, their response to omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3) supplementation, and associations with clinical status and treatment response in youth with mood disorders.

METHODS

In a placebo-controlled 2X2 design, 7-14 year-olds (N = 95) in parallel pilot trials (depression N = 72; bipolar N = 23) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of Ω3 supplementation (1.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 0.2 g docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], and 0.27 g other Ω3 per day); psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP); their combination; or placebo (mainly oleic and linoleic acid) alone. Blood was drawn at baseline (N = 90) and endpoint (n = 65). Fatty acid levels were expressed as percent of total plasma fatty acids. Correlational and moderator/mediator analyses were done with SPSS Statistics 23.

RESULTS

At baseline: (1) DHA correlated negatively with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (r = -0.23, p = 0.029); (2) Arachidonic acid (AA, Ω6) correlated negatively with global functioning (r = -0.24, p = 0.022); (3) Total Ω3 correlated negatively with age (r = -0.22, p = 0.036) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.31, p = 0.006). Moderation: Baseline ALA moderated response to Ω3 supplementation: ALA levels above the sample mean (lower DHA) predicted significantly better placebo-controlled response (p = 0.04). Supplementation effects: Compared to placebo, 2 g Ω3 per day increased EPA blood levels sevenfold and DHA levels by half (both p < 0.001). Body weight correlated inversely with increased EPA (r = -0.52, p = 0.004) and DHA (r = -0.54, p = 0.003) and positively with clinical mood response. Mediation: EPA increase baseline-to-endpoint mediated placebo-controlled global function and depression improvement: the greater the EPA increase, the less the placebo-controlled Ω3 improvement.

CONCLUSION

Ω3 supplementation at 2 g/day increases blood levels substantially, more so in smaller children. A possible U-shaped response curve should be explored.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio.2 Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore, Maryland.1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio. 3 Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio.1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio. 2 Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore, Maryland.1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio. 4 Nationwide Children's Hospital , Columbus, Ohio.5 Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Delaware , Newark, Delaware.1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio.1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28157380

Citation

Arnold, L Eugene, et al. "Omega-3 Fatty Acid Plasma Levels Before and After Supplementation: Correlations With Mood and Clinical Outcomes in the Omega-3 and Therapy Studies." Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 3, 2017, pp. 223-233.
Arnold LE, Young AS, Belury MA, et al. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Plasma Levels Before and After Supplementation: Correlations with Mood and Clinical Outcomes in the Omega-3 and Therapy Studies. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2017;27(3):223-233.
Arnold, L. E., Young, A. S., Belury, M. A., Cole, R. M., Gracious, B., Seidenfeld, A. M., Wolfson, H., & Fristad, M. A. (2017). Omega-3 Fatty Acid Plasma Levels Before and After Supplementation: Correlations with Mood and Clinical Outcomes in the Omega-3 and Therapy Studies. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 27(3), 223-233. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2016.0123
Arnold LE, et al. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Plasma Levels Before and After Supplementation: Correlations With Mood and Clinical Outcomes in the Omega-3 and Therapy Studies. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2017;27(3):223-233. PubMed PMID: 28157380.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Omega-3 Fatty Acid Plasma Levels Before and After Supplementation: Correlations with Mood and Clinical Outcomes in the Omega-3 and Therapy Studies. AU - Arnold,L Eugene, AU - Young,Andrea S, AU - Belury,Martha A, AU - Cole,Rachel M, AU - Gracious,Barbara, AU - Seidenfeld,Adina M, AU - Wolfson,Hannah, AU - Fristad,Mary A, Y1 - 2017/02/03/ PY - 2017/2/6/pubmed PY - 2017/8/10/medline PY - 2017/2/4/entrez KW - mediation KW - moderation KW - mood disorders KW - omega-3 fatty acids KW - plasma levels KW - supplementation as treatment SP - 223 EP - 233 JF - Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology JO - J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol VL - 27 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine fatty acid profiles, their response to omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3) supplementation, and associations with clinical status and treatment response in youth with mood disorders. METHODS: In a placebo-controlled 2X2 design, 7-14 year-olds (N = 95) in parallel pilot trials (depression N = 72; bipolar N = 23) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of Ω3 supplementation (1.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 0.2 g docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], and 0.27 g other Ω3 per day); psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP); their combination; or placebo (mainly oleic and linoleic acid) alone. Blood was drawn at baseline (N = 90) and endpoint (n = 65). Fatty acid levels were expressed as percent of total plasma fatty acids. Correlational and moderator/mediator analyses were done with SPSS Statistics 23. RESULTS: At baseline: (1) DHA correlated negatively with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (r = -0.23, p = 0.029); (2) Arachidonic acid (AA, Ω6) correlated negatively with global functioning (r = -0.24, p = 0.022); (3) Total Ω3 correlated negatively with age (r = -0.22, p = 0.036) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.31, p = 0.006). Moderation: Baseline ALA moderated response to Ω3 supplementation: ALA levels above the sample mean (lower DHA) predicted significantly better placebo-controlled response (p = 0.04). Supplementation effects: Compared to placebo, 2 g Ω3 per day increased EPA blood levels sevenfold and DHA levels by half (both p < 0.001). Body weight correlated inversely with increased EPA (r = -0.52, p = 0.004) and DHA (r = -0.54, p = 0.003) and positively with clinical mood response. Mediation: EPA increase baseline-to-endpoint mediated placebo-controlled global function and depression improvement: the greater the EPA increase, the less the placebo-controlled Ω3 improvement. CONCLUSION: Ω3 supplementation at 2 g/day increases blood levels substantially, more so in smaller children. A possible U-shaped response curve should be explored. SN - 1557-8992 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28157380/Omega_3_Fatty_Acid_Plasma_Levels_Before_and_After_Supplementation:_Correlations_with_Mood_and_Clinical_Outcomes_in_the_Omega_3_and_Therapy_Studies_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/cap.2016.0123?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -