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Effect of Tobacco Smoking on The Clinical, Histopathological, and Serological Manifestations of Sjögren's Syndrome.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0170249.Plos

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To assess the association of smoking habits with the clinical, serological, and histopathological manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and non-Sjögren's sicca (non-SS sicca).

METHODS

Cross-sectional case-control study of 1288 patients with sicca symptoms (587 SS and 701 non-SS sicca) evaluated in a multi-disciplinary research clinic. Smoking patterns were obtained from questionnaire data and disease-related clinical and laboratory data were compared between current, past, ever, and never smokers.

RESULTS

Current smoking rates were 4.6% for SS patients compared to 14.1% in non-SS sicca (p = 5.17x10E-09), 18% in a local lupus cohort (p = 1.13x10E-14) and 16.8% in the community (p = 4.12x10E-15). Current smoking was protective against SS classification (OR 0.35, 95%CI 0.22-0.56, FDR q = 1.9E10-05), focal lymphocytic sialadenitis (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.15-0.44, FDR q = 1.52x10E-06), focus score ≥1 (OR 0.22, 95%CI 0.13-0.39, FDR q = 1.43x10E-07), and anti-Ro/SSA(+) (OR 0.36, 95%CI 0.2-0.64, FDR q = 0.0009); ever smoking was protective against the same features and against anti-La/SSB(+) (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.39-0.70, FDR q = 5.82x10E-05). Duration of smoking was inversely correlated with SS even after controlling for socioeconomic status, BMI, alcohol and caffeine consumption.

CONCLUSIONS

Current tobacco smoking is negatively and independently associated with SS, protecting against disease-associated humoral and cellular autoimmunity. The overall smoking rate amongst SS patients is significantly lower than in matched populations and the effects of smoking are proportional to exposure duration. In spite of the protective effects of tobacco on SS manifestations, it is associated with other serious comorbidities such as lung disease, cardiovascular risk and malignancy, and should thus be strongly discouraged in patients with sicca.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.US Air Force 59th Medical Wing, Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America.Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.Department of Oral Pathology, University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.Department of Oral Surgery, University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.Division of Rheumatology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.Division of Rheumatology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.Division of Rheumatology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.Department of Oral Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, United States of America.Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America. Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28166540

Citation

Stone, Donald U., et al. "Effect of Tobacco Smoking On the Clinical, Histopathological, and Serological Manifestations of Sjögren's Syndrome." PloS One, vol. 12, no. 2, 2017, pp. e0170249.
Stone DU, Fife D, Brown M, et al. Effect of Tobacco Smoking on The Clinical, Histopathological, and Serological Manifestations of Sjögren's Syndrome. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0170249.
Stone, D. U., Fife, D., Brown, M., Earley, K. E., Radfar, L., Kaufman, C. E., Lewis, D. M., Rhodus, N. L., Segal, B. M., Wallace, D. J., Weisman, M. H., Venuturupalli, S., Brennan, M. T., Lessard, C. J., Montgomery, C. G., Scofield, R. H., Sivils, K. L., & Rasmussen, A. (2017). Effect of Tobacco Smoking on The Clinical, Histopathological, and Serological Manifestations of Sjögren's Syndrome. PloS One, 12(2), e0170249. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170249
Stone DU, et al. Effect of Tobacco Smoking On the Clinical, Histopathological, and Serological Manifestations of Sjögren's Syndrome. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0170249. PubMed PMID: 28166540.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of Tobacco Smoking on The Clinical, Histopathological, and Serological Manifestations of Sjögren's Syndrome. AU - Stone,Donald U, AU - Fife,Dustin, AU - Brown,Michael, AU - Earley,Keith E, AU - Radfar,Lida, AU - Kaufman,C Erick, AU - Lewis,David M, AU - Rhodus,Nelson L, AU - Segal,Barbara M, AU - Wallace,Daniel J, AU - Weisman,Michael H, AU - Venuturupalli,Swamy, AU - Brennan,Michael T, AU - Lessard,Christopher J, AU - Montgomery,Courtney G, AU - Scofield,R Hal, AU - Sivils,Kathy L, AU - Rasmussen,Astrid, Y1 - 2017/02/06/ PY - 2016/09/07/received PY - 2016/12/31/accepted PY - 2017/2/7/entrez PY - 2017/2/7/pubmed PY - 2017/8/26/medline SP - e0170249 EP - e0170249 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 12 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of smoking habits with the clinical, serological, and histopathological manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and non-Sjögren's sicca (non-SS sicca). METHODS: Cross-sectional case-control study of 1288 patients with sicca symptoms (587 SS and 701 non-SS sicca) evaluated in a multi-disciplinary research clinic. Smoking patterns were obtained from questionnaire data and disease-related clinical and laboratory data were compared between current, past, ever, and never smokers. RESULTS: Current smoking rates were 4.6% for SS patients compared to 14.1% in non-SS sicca (p = 5.17x10E-09), 18% in a local lupus cohort (p = 1.13x10E-14) and 16.8% in the community (p = 4.12x10E-15). Current smoking was protective against SS classification (OR 0.35, 95%CI 0.22-0.56, FDR q = 1.9E10-05), focal lymphocytic sialadenitis (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.15-0.44, FDR q = 1.52x10E-06), focus score ≥1 (OR 0.22, 95%CI 0.13-0.39, FDR q = 1.43x10E-07), and anti-Ro/SSA(+) (OR 0.36, 95%CI 0.2-0.64, FDR q = 0.0009); ever smoking was protective against the same features and against anti-La/SSB(+) (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.39-0.70, FDR q = 5.82x10E-05). Duration of smoking was inversely correlated with SS even after controlling for socioeconomic status, BMI, alcohol and caffeine consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Current tobacco smoking is negatively and independently associated with SS, protecting against disease-associated humoral and cellular autoimmunity. The overall smoking rate amongst SS patients is significantly lower than in matched populations and the effects of smoking are proportional to exposure duration. In spite of the protective effects of tobacco on SS manifestations, it is associated with other serious comorbidities such as lung disease, cardiovascular risk and malignancy, and should thus be strongly discouraged in patients with sicca. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28166540/Effect_of_Tobacco_Smoking_on_The_Clinical_Histopathological_and_Serological_Manifestations_of_Sjögren's_Syndrome_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170249 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -