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The Role of Nutritional Supplements in the Treatment of ADHD: What the Evidence Says.

Abstract

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children and adolescents and may persist into adulthood. Insufficient nutritional supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and other components including various minerals has been suggested to play a role in the development of ADHD symptoms. This review presents the evidence regarding the role of nutritional PUFA, zinc, iron, and magnesium supplements in the treatment of ADHD with a focus on the critical evaluation of the relevant literature published from 2014 to April 2016. The evaluation of therapeutic nutritional LC-PUFA supplementation in ADHD has shown mixed and inconclusive results and at best marginal beneficial effects. The benefits of PUFAs are much smaller than the effect sizes observed for traditional pharmacological treatments of ADHD. The effectiveness of PUFA supplements in reducing medication dosage has been suggested but needs to be confirmed. Zinc, iron, and magnesium supplementation may reduce ADHD symptoms in children with or at high risk of deficiencies in these minerals. However, convincing evidence in this regard is lacking.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

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    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93040, Regensburg, Germany. klaus.lange@ur.de.

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    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93040, Regensburg, Germany.

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    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93040, Regensburg, Germany.

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    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93040, Regensburg, Germany.

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    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93040, Regensburg, Germany.

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    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, 93040, Regensburg, Germany.

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    Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192, Japan.

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    Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192, Japan.

    Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192, Japan.

    Source

    Current psychiatry reports 19:2 2017 Feb pg 8

    MeSH

    Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
    Central Nervous System Stimulants
    Child
    Combined Modality Therapy
    Dietary Supplements
    Evidence-Based Medicine
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
    Humans
    Minerals
    Treatment Outcome

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    28168597

    Citation

    Lange, Klaus W., et al. "The Role of Nutritional Supplements in the Treatment of ADHD: what the Evidence Says." Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 19, no. 2, 2017, p. 8.
    Lange KW, Hauser J, Lange KM, et al. The Role of Nutritional Supplements in the Treatment of ADHD: What the Evidence Says. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2017;19(2):8.
    Lange, K. W., Hauser, J., Lange, K. M., Makulska-Gertruda, E., Nakamura, Y., Reissmann, A., ... Takeuchi, Y. (2017). The Role of Nutritional Supplements in the Treatment of ADHD: What the Evidence Says. Current Psychiatry Reports, 19(2), p. 8. doi:10.1007/s11920-017-0762-1.
    Lange KW, et al. The Role of Nutritional Supplements in the Treatment of ADHD: what the Evidence Says. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2017;19(2):8. PubMed PMID: 28168597.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The Role of Nutritional Supplements in the Treatment of ADHD: What the Evidence Says. AU - Lange,Klaus W, AU - Hauser,Joachim, AU - Lange,Katharina M, AU - Makulska-Gertruda,Ewelina, AU - Nakamura,Yukiko, AU - Reissmann,Andreas, AU - Sakaue,Yuko, AU - Takano,Tomoyuki, AU - Takeuchi,Yoshihiro, PY - 2017/2/8/entrez PY - 2017/2/9/pubmed PY - 2017/8/23/medline KW - ADHD KW - Iron KW - Magnesium KW - Nutritional supplements KW - Polyunsaturated fatty acids KW - Zinc SP - 8 EP - 8 JF - Current psychiatry reports JO - Curr Psychiatry Rep VL - 19 IS - 2 N2 - Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children and adolescents and may persist into adulthood. Insufficient nutritional supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and other components including various minerals has been suggested to play a role in the development of ADHD symptoms. This review presents the evidence regarding the role of nutritional PUFA, zinc, iron, and magnesium supplements in the treatment of ADHD with a focus on the critical evaluation of the relevant literature published from 2014 to April 2016. The evaluation of therapeutic nutritional LC-PUFA supplementation in ADHD has shown mixed and inconclusive results and at best marginal beneficial effects. The benefits of PUFAs are much smaller than the effect sizes observed for traditional pharmacological treatments of ADHD. The effectiveness of PUFA supplements in reducing medication dosage has been suggested but needs to be confirmed. Zinc, iron, and magnesium supplementation may reduce ADHD symptoms in children with or at high risk of deficiencies in these minerals. However, convincing evidence in this regard is lacking. SN - 1535-1645 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28168597/The_Role_of_Nutritional_Supplements_in_the_Treatment_of_ADHD:_What_the_Evidence_Says_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11920-017-0762-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -