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Startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations dissociate during backward fear conditioning.
Psychophysiology. 2017 05; 54(5):673-683.P

Abstract

Blink startle magnitude is linearly modulated by affect such that, relative to neutral stimuli, startle magnitude is inhibited during pleasant stimuli and potentiated during unpleasant stimuli. Andreatta, Mühlberger, Yarali, Gerber, and Pauli (2010), however, report a dissociation between startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations during backward conditioning, a procedure in which the unconditional stimulus precedes the conditional stimulus (CS). Relative to controls, startles elicited during the CS were inhibited, suggesting that the CS had acquired positive valence, but participants still evaluated the CS as unpleasant after the experiment. In Experiment 1, we aimed to replicate this dissociation using a trial-by-trial measure of CS valence to measure startle modulation and CS valence simultaneously during forward and backward differential fear conditioning. In Experiment 2, we examined whether early and late portions of the CS could acquire differential valence by presenting startle probes at early and late probe positions during the CS. In both experiments, the dissociation between startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations in backward conditioning replicated, with CS+ evaluated as less pleasant than CS-, but startles elicited during CS+ inhibited relative to CS-. In Experiment 2, we provide preliminary evidence that this inhibition was present early, but not late, during the CS+. The results replicate the dissociation between implicit and explicit CS valence reported by Andreatta et al. (2010) using a trial-by-trial measure of valence. We also provide preliminary evidence that this dissociation may occur because the implicit and explicit measures are recorded at different times during the CS presentation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia. ARC-SRI: Science of Learning Research Centre, Brisbane, Australia.School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia. ARC-SRI: Science of Learning Research Centre, Brisbane, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28169435

Citation

Luck, Camilla C., and Ottmar V. Lipp. "Startle Modulation and Explicit Valence Evaluations Dissociate During Backward Fear Conditioning." Psychophysiology, vol. 54, no. 5, 2017, pp. 673-683.
Luck CC, Lipp OV. Startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations dissociate during backward fear conditioning. Psychophysiology. 2017;54(5):673-683.
Luck, C. C., & Lipp, O. V. (2017). Startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations dissociate during backward fear conditioning. Psychophysiology, 54(5), 673-683. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12834
Luck CC, Lipp OV. Startle Modulation and Explicit Valence Evaluations Dissociate During Backward Fear Conditioning. Psychophysiology. 2017;54(5):673-683. PubMed PMID: 28169435.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations dissociate during backward fear conditioning. AU - Luck,Camilla C, AU - Lipp,Ottmar V, Y1 - 2017/02/07/ PY - 2015/12/06/received PY - 2016/12/07/accepted PY - 2017/2/9/pubmed PY - 2017/5/6/medline PY - 2017/2/8/entrez KW - Backward conditioning KW - Blink startle potentiation KW - Emotion KW - Fear conditioning KW - Fear-potentiated startle KW - Valence evaluations SP - 673 EP - 683 JF - Psychophysiology JO - Psychophysiology VL - 54 IS - 5 N2 - Blink startle magnitude is linearly modulated by affect such that, relative to neutral stimuli, startle magnitude is inhibited during pleasant stimuli and potentiated during unpleasant stimuli. Andreatta, Mühlberger, Yarali, Gerber, and Pauli (2010), however, report a dissociation between startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations during backward conditioning, a procedure in which the unconditional stimulus precedes the conditional stimulus (CS). Relative to controls, startles elicited during the CS were inhibited, suggesting that the CS had acquired positive valence, but participants still evaluated the CS as unpleasant after the experiment. In Experiment 1, we aimed to replicate this dissociation using a trial-by-trial measure of CS valence to measure startle modulation and CS valence simultaneously during forward and backward differential fear conditioning. In Experiment 2, we examined whether early and late portions of the CS could acquire differential valence by presenting startle probes at early and late probe positions during the CS. In both experiments, the dissociation between startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations in backward conditioning replicated, with CS+ evaluated as less pleasant than CS-, but startles elicited during CS+ inhibited relative to CS-. In Experiment 2, we provide preliminary evidence that this inhibition was present early, but not late, during the CS+. The results replicate the dissociation between implicit and explicit CS valence reported by Andreatta et al. (2010) using a trial-by-trial measure of valence. We also provide preliminary evidence that this dissociation may occur because the implicit and explicit measures are recorded at different times during the CS presentation. SN - 1540-5958 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28169435/Startle_modulation_and_explicit_valence_evaluations_dissociate_during_backward_fear_conditioning_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12834 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -