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The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in older people with Parkinson's disease.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2017; 32(12):e157-e165IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Active lifelong cognitive lifestyles increase cognitive reserve and have beneficial effects on global cognition, cognitive decline and dementia risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). Executive function is particularly impaired even in early PD, and this impacts on quality of life. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in PD have not been studied previously. This study examined the association between lifelong cognitive lifestyle, as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve, and executive function in people with PD.

METHODS

Sixty-nine people diagnosed with early PD without dementia were recruited as part of the Bilingualism as a protective factor in Age-related Neurodegenerative Conditions study. Participants completed a battery of tests of executive function. The Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire was completed as a comprehensive assessment of lifelong cognitive lifestyle. Non-parametric correlations compared clinical measures with executive function scores. Cross-sectional analyses of covariance were performed comparing the performance of low and high cognitive reserve groups on executive function tests.

RESULTS

Correlational analyses showed that better executive function scores were associated with younger age, higher levodopa dose and higher Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire scores. Higher cognitive reserve was associated with better motor function, but high and low cognitive reserve groups did not differ in executive function.

CONCLUSIONS

Cognitive reserve, although associated with global cognition, does not appear to be associated with executive function. This differential effect may reflect the specific cognitive profile of PD. The long-term effects of cognitive reserve on executive function in PD require further exploration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK. Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, Llandudno Hospital, Conwy, UK.Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK. NISCHR CRC North Wales Research Network, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.Centre for Research in Ageing and Cognitive Health, School of Psychology, Devon, UK. PenCLAHRC, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, UK.Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.Centre for Research in Ageing and Cognitive Health, School of Psychology, Devon, UK. PenCLAHRC, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28170111

Citation

Hindle, John V., et al. "The Effects of Lifelong Cognitive Lifestyle On Executive Function in Older People With Parkinson's Disease." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 32, no. 12, 2017, pp. e157-e165.
Hindle JV, Martin-Forbes PA, Martyr A, et al. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in older people with Parkinson's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017;32(12):e157-e165.
Hindle, J. V., Martin-Forbes, P. A., Martyr, A., Bastable, A. J. M., Pye, K. L., Mueller Gathercole, V. C., ... Clare, L. (2017). The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in older people with Parkinson's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 32(12), pp. e157-e165. doi:10.1002/gps.4677.
Hindle JV, et al. The Effects of Lifelong Cognitive Lifestyle On Executive Function in Older People With Parkinson's Disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017;32(12):e157-e165. PubMed PMID: 28170111.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in older people with Parkinson's disease. AU - Hindle,John V, AU - Martin-Forbes,Pamela A, AU - Martyr,Anthony, AU - Bastable,Alexandra J M, AU - Pye,Kirstie L, AU - Mueller Gathercole,Virginia C, AU - Thomas,Enlli M, AU - Clare,Linda, Y1 - 2017/02/07/ PY - 2016/09/19/received PY - 2017/01/11/accepted PY - 2017/2/9/pubmed PY - 2018/6/26/medline PY - 2017/2/8/entrez KW - cognition KW - dementia KW - education KW - motor function KW - occupation KW - social engagement SP - e157 EP - e165 JF - International journal of geriatric psychiatry JO - Int J Geriatr Psychiatry VL - 32 IS - 12 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Active lifelong cognitive lifestyles increase cognitive reserve and have beneficial effects on global cognition, cognitive decline and dementia risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). Executive function is particularly impaired even in early PD, and this impacts on quality of life. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in PD have not been studied previously. This study examined the association between lifelong cognitive lifestyle, as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve, and executive function in people with PD. METHODS: Sixty-nine people diagnosed with early PD without dementia were recruited as part of the Bilingualism as a protective factor in Age-related Neurodegenerative Conditions study. Participants completed a battery of tests of executive function. The Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire was completed as a comprehensive assessment of lifelong cognitive lifestyle. Non-parametric correlations compared clinical measures with executive function scores. Cross-sectional analyses of covariance were performed comparing the performance of low and high cognitive reserve groups on executive function tests. RESULTS: Correlational analyses showed that better executive function scores were associated with younger age, higher levodopa dose and higher Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire scores. Higher cognitive reserve was associated with better motor function, but high and low cognitive reserve groups did not differ in executive function. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive reserve, although associated with global cognition, does not appear to be associated with executive function. This differential effect may reflect the specific cognitive profile of PD. The long-term effects of cognitive reserve on executive function in PD require further exploration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. SN - 1099-1166 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28170111/The_effects_of_lifelong_cognitive_lifestyle_on_executive_function_in_older_people_with_Parkinson's_disease_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4677 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -