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Short-term heat acclimation improves the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km running performance in the heat.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2017; 42(3):285-294AP

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of 5 days of controlled short-term heat acclimation (STHA) on the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km performance in runners, relative to the impairment afforded by moderate heat stress. A control group (CON), matched for total work and power output (2.7 W·kg-1), differentiated thermal and exercise contributions of STHA on exercise performance. Seventeen participants (10 STHA, 7 CON) completed graded exercise tests (GXTs) in cool (13 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH), pre-training) and hot conditions (32 °C, 60% RH, pre- and post-training), as well as 5-km time trials (TTs) in the heat, pre- and post-training. STHA reduced resting (p = 0.01) and exercising (p = 0.04) core temperature alongside a smaller change in thermal sensation (p = 0.04). Both groups improved the lactate threshold (LT, p = 0.021), lactate turnpoint (LTP, p = 0.005) and velocity at maximal oxygen consumption (vV̇O2max; p = 0.031) similarly. Statistical differences between training methods were observed in TT performance (STHA, -6.2(5.5)%; CON, -0.6(1.7)%, p = 0.029) and total running time during the GXT (STHA, +20.8(12.7)%; CON, +9.8(1.2)%, p = 0.006). There were large mean differences in change in maximal oxygen consumption between STHA +4.0(2.2) mL·kg-1·min-1 (7.3(4.0)%) and CON +1.9(3.7) mL·kg-1·min-1 (3.8(7.2)%). Running economy (RE) deteriorated following both training programmes (p = 0.008). Similarly, RE was impaired in the cool GXT, relative to the hot GXT (p = 0.004). STHA improved endurance running performance in comparison with work-matched normothermic training, despite equality of adaptation for typical determinants of performance (LT, LTP, vV̇O2max). Accordingly, these data highlight the ergogenic effect of STHA, potentially via greater improvements in maximal oxygen consumption and specific thermoregulatory and associated thermal perception adaptations absent in normothermic training.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Environmental Extremes Laboratory, Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), University of Brighton, Eastbourne BN20 7UR, UK. b National Sports Institute of Malaysia, Institut Sukan Negara, Bukit Jalil Stadium, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia.a Environmental Extremes Laboratory, Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), University of Brighton, Eastbourne BN20 7UR, UK.a Environmental Extremes Laboratory, Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), University of Brighton, Eastbourne BN20 7UR, UK.a Environmental Extremes Laboratory, Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), University of Brighton, Eastbourne BN20 7UR, UK.c Centre for Human Performance, Exercise and Rehabilitation (CHPER), Brunel University London UB8 3PH, UK.a Environmental Extremes Laboratory, Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), University of Brighton, Eastbourne BN20 7UR, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28177747

Citation

James, Carl A., et al. "Short-term Heat Acclimation Improves the Determinants of Endurance Performance and 5-km Running Performance in the Heat." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, vol. 42, no. 3, 2017, pp. 285-294.
James CA, Richardson AJ, Watt PW, et al. Short-term heat acclimation improves the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km running performance in the heat. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017;42(3):285-294.
James, C. A., Richardson, A. J., Watt, P. W., Willmott, A. G., Gibson, O. R., & Maxwell, N. S. (2017). Short-term heat acclimation improves the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km running performance in the heat. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 42(3), pp. 285-294. doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0349.
James CA, et al. Short-term Heat Acclimation Improves the Determinants of Endurance Performance and 5-km Running Performance in the Heat. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017;42(3):285-294. PubMed PMID: 28177747.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Short-term heat acclimation improves the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km running performance in the heat. AU - James,Carl A, AU - Richardson,Alan J, AU - Watt,Peter W, AU - Willmott,Ashley G B, AU - Gibson,Oliver R, AU - Maxwell,Neil S, Y1 - 2016/11/18/ PY - 2017/2/9/pubmed PY - 2017/3/30/medline PY - 2017/2/9/entrez KW - acclimatation à la chaleur KW - consommation maximale d’oxygène KW - endurance KW - heat acclimation KW - hyperthermia KW - hyperthermie KW - maximal oxygen consumption KW - thermoregulation KW - thermorégulation SP - 285 EP - 294 JF - Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme JO - Appl Physiol Nutr Metab VL - 42 IS - 3 N2 - This study investigated the effect of 5 days of controlled short-term heat acclimation (STHA) on the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km performance in runners, relative to the impairment afforded by moderate heat stress. A control group (CON), matched for total work and power output (2.7 W·kg-1), differentiated thermal and exercise contributions of STHA on exercise performance. Seventeen participants (10 STHA, 7 CON) completed graded exercise tests (GXTs) in cool (13 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH), pre-training) and hot conditions (32 °C, 60% RH, pre- and post-training), as well as 5-km time trials (TTs) in the heat, pre- and post-training. STHA reduced resting (p = 0.01) and exercising (p = 0.04) core temperature alongside a smaller change in thermal sensation (p = 0.04). Both groups improved the lactate threshold (LT, p = 0.021), lactate turnpoint (LTP, p = 0.005) and velocity at maximal oxygen consumption (vV̇O2max; p = 0.031) similarly. Statistical differences between training methods were observed in TT performance (STHA, -6.2(5.5)%; CON, -0.6(1.7)%, p = 0.029) and total running time during the GXT (STHA, +20.8(12.7)%; CON, +9.8(1.2)%, p = 0.006). There were large mean differences in change in maximal oxygen consumption between STHA +4.0(2.2) mL·kg-1·min-1 (7.3(4.0)%) and CON +1.9(3.7) mL·kg-1·min-1 (3.8(7.2)%). Running economy (RE) deteriorated following both training programmes (p = 0.008). Similarly, RE was impaired in the cool GXT, relative to the hot GXT (p = 0.004). STHA improved endurance running performance in comparison with work-matched normothermic training, despite equality of adaptation for typical determinants of performance (LT, LTP, vV̇O2max). Accordingly, these data highlight the ergogenic effect of STHA, potentially via greater improvements in maximal oxygen consumption and specific thermoregulatory and associated thermal perception adaptations absent in normothermic training. SN - 1715-5320 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28177747/Short_term_heat_acclimation_improves_the_determinants_of_endurance_performance_and_5_km_running_performance_in_the_heat_ L2 - http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/apnm-2016-0349?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -