Ginsenoside Rg1 improves fertility and reduces ovarian pathological damages in premature ovarian failure model of mice.Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017 04; 242(7):683-691.EB
This study aims to investigate the effect as well as mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) on premature ovarian failure (POF) induced by d-galactose (d-gal) in mice. C57BL/6 female mice were divided into four groups randomly, which were the saline group, the d-gal group, the d-gal + Rg1 group, and the Rg1 group. Body weight was recorded. Overall ovarian function including estrous cycles, sex hormone secretion, ovarian follicle development, and ovarian morphology was analyzed by H&E staining and ELISA. Effect of Rg1 on aging was determined by analyzing the activities of oxidation-associated biomarkers, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, expression of senescence-associated proteins, and fertility. Compared with the d-gal group, in Rg1 + d-gal group, body weight was increased significantly, estrous cycle block was released, and fertility and the morphology of ovaries were restored. And, Rg1 treatment after d-gal administration significantly reduced senescence-associated protein expression, increased the activity of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase from bovine erythrocyte, and induced higher follicle stimulating hormone receptor protein expression. Additionally, the expression levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 were significantly decreased. Together, Rg1 improves mouse fertility and reduces ovarian pathological damage in d-gal-induced POF model possibly through enhancing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities and reducing expression of senescence signal pathway proteins. Impact statement Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is a kind of natural estrogen and it has antioxidation and antiaging effects. However, whether Rg1 has effects on premature ovarian failure (POF) is still not clear. In this study, aging model induced by d-galactose was used to mimic POF. The effect and possible mechanism of Rg1 on ovary aging was investigated. We found that Rg1 treatment up-regulated the expression of follicle stimulating hormone receptor and down-regulated senescence-associated protein expression in granule cells of POF mice. Particularly, Rg1 improved fertility ability and reduced ovarian pathological damages by its antioxidative and anti-inflammation capacity. Thus, Rg1 enhances the antiaging ability of ovary and fertility ability of POF mice through enhancing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities of ovary.