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Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome: New insights on craniofacial and dental features.
Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Apr; 173(4):905-913.AJ

Abstract

Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome is a rare condition characterized by bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), eyelid abnormalities, and oligodontia. Despite orofacial clefting and oligodontia being central features of the condition, detailed reports of dental and craniofacial characteristics are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze the dental and craniofacial features in a group of patients with BCD syndrome (three of which were related). Cephalometric radiographic analyses were performed on BCD syndrome patients (all radiographs taken at age 8 years) and compared to 40 randomly selected age-matched controls (20 non-syndromic BCLP, 20 non-cleft). Also, we assessed clinical records, photographs, dental study casts, and dental radiographs to determine the extent and pattern of tooth agenesis, dental morphology and malocclusion. BCD syndrome patients showed a very severe skeletal III malocclusion (maxillary-mandibular sagittal discrepancy) and reduced anterior lower face measurement compared to non-syndromic BCLP and non-cleft controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.027). All patients exhibited oligodontia (mean number of missing permanent teeth 13.7, range 7-17). All patients exhibited missing upper central and lateral incisor, upper canine and premolar teeth. Variations in dental morphology included taurodontism, conical-shaped teeth, and notching of the incisal edges. All patients had a short and narrow maxilla which translated into anterior and posterior cross bites. We conclude that, in our BCD syndrome group, the craniofacial skeletal defects are more severe than patients with BCLP. The pattern of tooth agenesis is unusual as it included teeth that are normally highly resistant to agenesis, namely upper central incisor and canine teeth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Orthodontics, Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.Orthodontics, Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Centre, Plastic surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.Orthodontics, Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.Orthodontics, Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Centre, Plastic surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.Orthodontics, Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28181393

Citation

Awadh, Wael, et al. "Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) Syndrome: New Insights On Craniofacial and Dental Features." American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, vol. 173, no. 4, 2017, pp. 905-913.
Awadh W, Kiukkonen A, Nieminen P, et al. Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome: New insights on craniofacial and dental features. Am J Med Genet A. 2017;173(4):905-913.
Awadh, W., Kiukkonen, A., Nieminen, P., Arte, S., Hurmerinta, K., & Rice, D. P. (2017). Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome: New insights on craniofacial and dental features. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 173(4), 905-913. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38088
Awadh W, et al. Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) Syndrome: New Insights On Craniofacial and Dental Features. Am J Med Genet A. 2017;173(4):905-913. PubMed PMID: 28181393.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome: New insights on craniofacial and dental features. AU - Awadh,Wael, AU - Kiukkonen,Anu, AU - Nieminen,Pekka, AU - Arte,Sirpa, AU - Hurmerinta,Kirsti, AU - Rice,David P, Y1 - 2017/02/09/ PY - 2016/08/19/received PY - 2016/11/23/accepted PY - 2017/2/10/pubmed PY - 2017/10/31/medline PY - 2017/2/10/entrez KW - Blepharocheilodontic syndrome KW - cleft lip and palate KW - craniofacial KW - dental anomalies KW - oligodontia SP - 905 EP - 913 JF - American journal of medical genetics. Part A JO - Am. J. Med. Genet. A VL - 173 IS - 4 N2 - Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome is a rare condition characterized by bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), eyelid abnormalities, and oligodontia. Despite orofacial clefting and oligodontia being central features of the condition, detailed reports of dental and craniofacial characteristics are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze the dental and craniofacial features in a group of patients with BCD syndrome (three of which were related). Cephalometric radiographic analyses were performed on BCD syndrome patients (all radiographs taken at age 8 years) and compared to 40 randomly selected age-matched controls (20 non-syndromic BCLP, 20 non-cleft). Also, we assessed clinical records, photographs, dental study casts, and dental radiographs to determine the extent and pattern of tooth agenesis, dental morphology and malocclusion. BCD syndrome patients showed a very severe skeletal III malocclusion (maxillary-mandibular sagittal discrepancy) and reduced anterior lower face measurement compared to non-syndromic BCLP and non-cleft controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.027). All patients exhibited oligodontia (mean number of missing permanent teeth 13.7, range 7-17). All patients exhibited missing upper central and lateral incisor, upper canine and premolar teeth. Variations in dental morphology included taurodontism, conical-shaped teeth, and notching of the incisal edges. All patients had a short and narrow maxilla which translated into anterior and posterior cross bites. We conclude that, in our BCD syndrome group, the craniofacial skeletal defects are more severe than patients with BCLP. The pattern of tooth agenesis is unusual as it included teeth that are normally highly resistant to agenesis, namely upper central incisor and canine teeth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. SN - 1552-4833 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28181393/Blepharocheilodontic__BCD__syndrome:_New_insights_on_craniofacial_and_dental_features_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38088 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -