Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Toxicity of abamectin and difenoconazole mixtures to a Neotropical cladoceran after simulated run-off and spray drift exposure.
Aquat Toxicol. 2017 Apr; 185:58-66.AT

Abstract

Aquatic risk assessments of pesticides in tropical countries have often been disputed for being largely based on risk evaluations conducted in temperate regions. Although pesticide sensitivity comparisons between temperate and tropical freshwater organisms have indeed not revealed consistent differences, risk assessments are currently still based on a relatively small tropical toxicity dataset. In addition, greater levels of runoff and spray drift may be expected in tropical than in temperate agroecosystems, indicating that aquatic life in edge-of-field water bodies is likely to be subjected to higher concentrations of pesticides and their mixtures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of Kraft® 36 EC (a.i. abamectin), Score® 250 EC (a.i. difenoconazole) and their mixture to the Neotropical cladoceran Macrothrix flabelligera. Laboratory toxicity tests with the individual formulated products indicated EC50-48h values of 3.1 and 659μg a.i./L given as nominal test concentrations, respectively. Mixtures of the two pesticides revealed a concentration-dependent deviation of the independent action model, with antagonism at low and synergism at high pesticide mixture concentrations. Laboratory toxicity tests were also conducted with microcosm water that was treated with the individual or mixtures through runoff or direct overspray. Microcosm tanks receiving runoff water from experimental soil plots applied with recommended doses of the individual pesticides did not show toxicity to the test organism. Microcosms that received runoff water containing the pesticide mixture, however, did cause a short-term effect on immobility. The microcosms that were treated by direct overspray of both pesticide formulations showed the most pronounced toxic effects. Study findings suggest a potential risk of these pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations, especially when they are both present.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Post-Graduate Program of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: raquel.moreira87@yahoo.com.br.NEEA/CRHEA/SHS, São Carlos Engineering School, University of São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, 13.560-970 São Carlos, Brazil; Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.NEEA/CRHEA/SHS, São Carlos Engineering School, University of São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, 13.560-970 São Carlos, Brazil.NEEA/CRHEA/SHS, São Carlos Engineering School, University of São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, 13.560-970 São Carlos, Brazil.NEEA/CRHEA/SHS, São Carlos Engineering School, University of São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, 13.560-970 São Carlos, Brazil.Post-Graduate Program of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.Post-Graduate Program of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.NEEA/CRHEA/SHS, São Carlos Engineering School, University of São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, 13.560-970 São Carlos, Brazil.Post-Graduate Program of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28187361

Citation

Moreira, Raquel Aparecida, et al. "Toxicity of Abamectin and Difenoconazole Mixtures to a Neotropical Cladoceran After Simulated Run-off and Spray Drift Exposure." Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 185, 2017, pp. 58-66.
Moreira RA, Daam MA, Vieira BH, et al. Toxicity of abamectin and difenoconazole mixtures to a Neotropical cladoceran after simulated run-off and spray drift exposure. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;185:58-66.
Moreira, R. A., Daam, M. A., Vieira, B. H., Sanches, A. L., Reghini, M. V., da Silva Mansano, A., de Freitas, E. C., Espindola, E. L., & Rocha, O. (2017). Toxicity of abamectin and difenoconazole mixtures to a Neotropical cladoceran after simulated run-off and spray drift exposure. Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 185, 58-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.02.001
Moreira RA, et al. Toxicity of Abamectin and Difenoconazole Mixtures to a Neotropical Cladoceran After Simulated Run-off and Spray Drift Exposure. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;185:58-66. PubMed PMID: 28187361.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Toxicity of abamectin and difenoconazole mixtures to a Neotropical cladoceran after simulated run-off and spray drift exposure. AU - Moreira,Raquel Aparecida, AU - Daam,Michiel Adriaan, AU - Vieira,Bruna Horvath, AU - Sanches,Ana Letícia Madeira, AU - Reghini,Marina Vanderlei, AU - da Silva Mansano,Adrislaine, AU - de Freitas,Emanuela Cristina, AU - Espindola,Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, AU - Rocha,Odete, Y1 - 2017/02/03/ PY - 2016/09/15/received PY - 2017/01/26/revised PY - 2017/02/02/accepted PY - 2017/2/12/pubmed PY - 2017/5/16/medline PY - 2017/2/11/entrez KW - Environmental risk assessment KW - Macrothrix flabelligera KW - Microcosms KW - Pesticide mixtures KW - Tropics SP - 58 EP - 66 JF - Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) JO - Aquat. Toxicol. VL - 185 N2 - Aquatic risk assessments of pesticides in tropical countries have often been disputed for being largely based on risk evaluations conducted in temperate regions. Although pesticide sensitivity comparisons between temperate and tropical freshwater organisms have indeed not revealed consistent differences, risk assessments are currently still based on a relatively small tropical toxicity dataset. In addition, greater levels of runoff and spray drift may be expected in tropical than in temperate agroecosystems, indicating that aquatic life in edge-of-field water bodies is likely to be subjected to higher concentrations of pesticides and their mixtures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of Kraft® 36 EC (a.i. abamectin), Score® 250 EC (a.i. difenoconazole) and their mixture to the Neotropical cladoceran Macrothrix flabelligera. Laboratory toxicity tests with the individual formulated products indicated EC50-48h values of 3.1 and 659μg a.i./L given as nominal test concentrations, respectively. Mixtures of the two pesticides revealed a concentration-dependent deviation of the independent action model, with antagonism at low and synergism at high pesticide mixture concentrations. Laboratory toxicity tests were also conducted with microcosm water that was treated with the individual or mixtures through runoff or direct overspray. Microcosm tanks receiving runoff water from experimental soil plots applied with recommended doses of the individual pesticides did not show toxicity to the test organism. Microcosms that received runoff water containing the pesticide mixture, however, did cause a short-term effect on immobility. The microcosms that were treated by direct overspray of both pesticide formulations showed the most pronounced toxic effects. Study findings suggest a potential risk of these pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations, especially when they are both present. SN - 1879-1514 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28187361/Toxicity_of_abamectin_and_difenoconazole_mixtures_to_a_Neotropical_cladoceran_after_simulated_run_off_and_spray_drift_exposure_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-445X(17)30032-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -