Neutralization of interleukin-9 ameliorates symptoms of allergic rhinitis by reducing Th2, Th9, and Th17 responses and increasing the Treg response in a murine model.Oncotarget. 2017 Feb 28; 8(9):14314-14324.O
A novel independent Th-cell subset, characterized by high expression of interleukin (IL)-9, has been recognized as the "Th9" subset. Although Th9 cells are important in many diseases, their contribution to allergic rhinitis (AR) remains unclear. We therefore first determined whether Th9 cells were present in a mouse model of AR. We then investigated the their involvement in the distribution of CD4+ T-cell subsets and the symptoms of AR by treating mice with anti-IL-9 antibodies (Abs). Anti-IL-9 Abs were administered intranasally during rechallenge of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR in BALB/c mice. We measured nasal rubbing motion, sneezing and eosinophils, as well as the Th1 (Th1 cell percentage, Ifn-γ mRNA/protein, T-bet mRNA), Th2 (Th2 cell percentage, Il-4 mRNA/protein, Gata3 mRNA), Th9 (Th9 cell percentages Il-9 mRNA/protein, PU.1 and Irf4 mRNA), Th17 (Th17 cell percentage, Il-17 mRNA/protein, Rorγt mRNA), and Treg (Treg cell percentage, Foxp3 mRNA) responses in the nasal mucosa. Treatment with anti-IL-9 Abs markedly reduced nasal rubbing, sneezing, eosinophil infiltration, and Th2, Th9, and Th17 responses, and increased the Treg response. Our findings emphasize the importance of IL-9/Th9 in the pathogenesis of AR, and suggest that anti-IL-9 Ab treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for AR.