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Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results.

Abstract

A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. Impact statement Current recommendations to reduce colon cancer include the reduction or elimination of red or processed meats. These recommendations are based on data from epidemiological studies conducted among cultures where meat consumption is elevated and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are reduced. This review evaluated experimental data exploring the putative mechanisms whereby red or processed meats may contribute to colon cancer. Most studies used levels of meat or meat-derived compounds that were in excess of those in human diets, even in cultures where meat intake is elevated. Experiments where protective dietary compounds were used to mitigate the extreme levels of meat and meat-derived compounds showed protection against colon cancer, with some essentially negating the impact of meat in the diet. It is essential that better-designed studies be conducted that use relevant concentrations of meat or meat-derived compounds in complex diets representative of the foods consumed by humans.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    1 Nutrition & Food Science Department, Texas A&M University, TX 77843-2253, USA. 2 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A&M University, TX 77843-2253, USA.

    1 Nutrition & Food Science Department, Texas A&M University, TX 77843-2253, USA.

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Colonic Neoplasms
    Cooking
    Diet, Western
    Heme
    Humans
    Iron
    Meat
    Mutagens
    Observational Studies as Topic

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review
    Systematic Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    28205448

    Citation

    Turner, Nancy D., and Shannon K. Lloyd. "Association Between Red Meat Consumption and Colon Cancer: a Systematic Review of Experimental Results." Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.), vol. 242, no. 8, 2017, pp. 813-839.
    Turner ND, Lloyd SK. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;242(8):813-839.
    Turner, N. D., & Lloyd, S. K. (2017). Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results. Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 242(8), pp. 813-839. doi:10.1177/1535370217693117.
    Turner ND, Lloyd SK. Association Between Red Meat Consumption and Colon Cancer: a Systematic Review of Experimental Results. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;242(8):813-839. PubMed PMID: 28205448.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results. AU - Turner,Nancy D, AU - Lloyd,Shannon K, Y1 - 2017/01/01/ PY - 2017/2/17/pubmed PY - 2017/5/10/medline PY - 2017/2/17/entrez KW - N-nitroso compounds KW - Red meat KW - Western dietary pattern KW - cancer KW - heme iron KW - heterocyclic amines KW - nitrates KW - processed meat SP - 813 EP - 839 JF - Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) JO - Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) VL - 242 IS - 8 N2 - A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. Impact statement Current recommendations to reduce colon cancer include the reduction or elimination of red or processed meats. These recommendations are based on data from epidemiological studies conducted among cultures where meat consumption is elevated and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are reduced. This review evaluated experimental data exploring the putative mechanisms whereby red or processed meats may contribute to colon cancer. Most studies used levels of meat or meat-derived compounds that were in excess of those in human diets, even in cultures where meat intake is elevated. Experiments where protective dietary compounds were used to mitigate the extreme levels of meat and meat-derived compounds showed protection against colon cancer, with some essentially negating the impact of meat in the diet. It is essential that better-designed studies be conducted that use relevant concentrations of meat or meat-derived compounds in complex diets representative of the foods consumed by humans. SN - 1535-3699 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28205448/Association_between_red_meat_consumption_and_colon_cancer:_A_systematic_review_of_experimental_results_ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1535370217693117?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -