Tricuspid Regurgitation Associated With Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: Characterization, Evolution After Mitral Surgery, and Value of Tricuspid Repair.Ann Thorac Surg 2017; 104(2):501-509AT
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) often accompanies ischemic mitral regurgitation and is generally assumed to be a secondary consequence of altered hemodynamics of the left-sided regurgitation. We hypothesized that it may also be a direct consequence of right-sided ischemic disease. Therefore, our objectives were to (1) characterize the nature of this TR and (2) describe its time course after mitral valve surgery for ischemic mitral regurgitation, with or without concomitant tricuspid valve repair.
From 2001 to 2011, 568 patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation underwent mitral valve surgery. They had varying degrees of TR and altered right-side heart morphology and function; 131 had concomitant tricuspid valve repair. Postoperatively, 1,395 echocardiograms were available to assess residual and recurrent TR.
Greater severity of preoperative TR was accompanied by larger tricuspid valve diameter, greater leaflet tethering, worse right ventricular function, and higher right ventricular pressure (all p [trend] ≤ 0.002). Without tricuspid valve repair, 31% of patients with no preoperative TR had moderate or greater TR by 5 years, as did 62% with moderate TR. With tricuspid valve repair, 25% with moderate preoperative TR remained in that grade at 5 years, but 11% had severe TR.
Tricuspid regurgitation accompanying ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with right-side heart remodeling and dysfunction often mirroring that occurring in the left side of the heart-ischemic TR. Tricuspid valve repair is effective initially, but as with mitral valve repair, TR progressively returns. Therefore, when the severity of TR and right-sided remodeling reaches the point of irreversibility, it may be an indication to eliminate the TR by replacing the tricuspid valve.