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Prebiotic inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides: definition, specificity, function, and application in gastrointestinal disorders.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 32 Suppl 1:64-68JG

Abstract

Prebiotics are non-digestible selectively fermented dietary fibers that specifically promote the growth of one or more bacterial genera in the gastrointestinal tract and thus provide health benefit to the host. The two most investigated prebiotics being the inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides. Prebiotic specificity is mediated through species-specific gene clusters within saccharolytic bacteria controlled by signaling sensors for various substrates. Prebiotic health benefits are attributed to immune regulation and bacterial metabolite production. In humans, prebiotic supplementation leads to increased growth of specific gut microbiota (e.g., bifidobacteria), immune modulation, and depending on the bacterial augmentation, short-chain fatty acid production. Irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease are gastrointestinal disorders associated with reductions in some gut bacteria and greater mucosal inflammation. Prebiotic supplementation studies have shown some promise at low doses for modulation of the gut bacteria and reduction of symptoms in IBS; however, larger doses may have neutral or negative impact on symptoms. Studies in Crohn's disease have not shown benefit to bacterial modulation or inflammatory response with prebiotic supplementation. Dietary restriction of fermentable carbohydrates (low FODMAP diet), which restricts some naturally occurring prebiotics from the diet, has shown efficacy in improving symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, but it lowers the numbers of some key gut microbiota. Further research is required on the effect of prebiotics in gastrointestinal disorders and, in particular, on their use in conjunction with the low FODMAP diet.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King's College London, London, UK.Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King's College London, London, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28244671

Citation

Wilson, Bridgette, and Kevin Whelan. "Prebiotic Inulin-type Fructans and Galacto-oligosaccharides: Definition, Specificity, Function, and Application in Gastrointestinal Disorders." Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 32 Suppl 1, 2017, pp. 64-68.
Wilson B, Whelan K. Prebiotic inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides: definition, specificity, function, and application in gastrointestinal disorders. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;32 Suppl 1:64-68.
Wilson, B., & Whelan, K. (2017). Prebiotic inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides: definition, specificity, function, and application in gastrointestinal disorders. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 32 Suppl 1, pp. 64-68. doi:10.1111/jgh.13700.
Wilson B, Whelan K. Prebiotic Inulin-type Fructans and Galacto-oligosaccharides: Definition, Specificity, Function, and Application in Gastrointestinal Disorders. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;32 Suppl 1:64-68. PubMed PMID: 28244671.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prebiotic inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides: definition, specificity, function, and application in gastrointestinal disorders. AU - Wilson,Bridgette, AU - Whelan,Kevin, PY - 2016/12/21/accepted PY - 2017/3/1/entrez PY - 2017/3/1/pubmed PY - 2017/8/11/medline KW - galacto-oligosaccharides KW - inulin KW - irritable bowel syndrome KW - low FODMAP KW - prebiotics SP - 64 EP - 68 JF - Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology JO - J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. VL - 32 Suppl 1 N2 - Prebiotics are non-digestible selectively fermented dietary fibers that specifically promote the growth of one or more bacterial genera in the gastrointestinal tract and thus provide health benefit to the host. The two most investigated prebiotics being the inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides. Prebiotic specificity is mediated through species-specific gene clusters within saccharolytic bacteria controlled by signaling sensors for various substrates. Prebiotic health benefits are attributed to immune regulation and bacterial metabolite production. In humans, prebiotic supplementation leads to increased growth of specific gut microbiota (e.g., bifidobacteria), immune modulation, and depending on the bacterial augmentation, short-chain fatty acid production. Irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease are gastrointestinal disorders associated with reductions in some gut bacteria and greater mucosal inflammation. Prebiotic supplementation studies have shown some promise at low doses for modulation of the gut bacteria and reduction of symptoms in IBS; however, larger doses may have neutral or negative impact on symptoms. Studies in Crohn's disease have not shown benefit to bacterial modulation or inflammatory response with prebiotic supplementation. Dietary restriction of fermentable carbohydrates (low FODMAP diet), which restricts some naturally occurring prebiotics from the diet, has shown efficacy in improving symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, but it lowers the numbers of some key gut microbiota. Further research is required on the effect of prebiotics in gastrointestinal disorders and, in particular, on their use in conjunction with the low FODMAP diet. SN - 1440-1746 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28244671/Prebiotic_inulin_type_fructans_and_galacto_oligosaccharides:_definition_specificity_function_and_application_in_gastrointestinal_disorders_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/jgh.13700 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -